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Twenty Years after the Collapse of the USSR: Continuity and Change
Soviet elections, up to the Gorbachev years, had lacked a choice of candidate, let alone of party. But from 1989 onwards, they were largely competitive, and from 1993 onwards under a postcommunist constitution they were multiparty as well. Under the Putin leadership, from 2000 onwards, there was a movement towards 'authoritarian elections' in which control of the media and of the state itself meant that candidates and parties favoured by the Kremlin could normally be assured of success. Thedoi:10.3929/ethz-a-007325850 fatcat:dmvcssdwg5f7tbjztil6nahr4u