Senatorial Audits of the second half of the 19th century as a Means of Overseeing the Activities of Local Authorities
It is devoted to senatorial revisions of the second half of the 19th century, which were divided into three groups in terms of tasks and significance: 1) due to the introduction of the Judicial Charters of 1864 on the territory of the Russian Empire; 2) related to specific instructions of the government and problems at the level of local administrations; 3) the most important audits organized in order to strengthen the state mechanism of autocracy, combat the liberation movement, purge the
... ent, purge the local apparatus, clarify the facts of execution and bribery. It was revealed that during inspections by senators, multiple violations were found in the field of provincial and county administration; incompetence, inactivity and lack of system in the work of officials; ignorance of the current domestic political problems of the Governor-General; lack of work on peasant reform; failure to comply with the requirements of the law; abuse of power; extreme slowness in the processing of cases. It is emphasized that, since these events left a significant array of historical information of a statistical nature and research material about the provinces being examined (including the number of the population, its employment, moods, the causes of social processes, etc.), the source base of scientific work on this issue can be significantly expanded. It was concluded that there was a strong side of senatorial audits, which consisted in a clear regulation of their implementation, recorded by numerous instructions. At the same time, despite the private positive results, namely the cleansing of the state apparatus, the prosecution of stolen officials, etc., such measures, as a rule, did not have serious political consequences. The exception was the revision of Manasein 1882−1883, the result of which was the reorganization of the Polish and judicial system of the Baltic provinces.