The Integration of Information And Communication Technologies For Education: Comparative Analysis of Turkey And Singapore
Ahmet Keleşoğlu Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi
142 software they need and brought the necessity of increasing computer competencies with preservice and in-service trainings (Schifter, 2008) . With the expansion of microcomputer technology in the early 1980s, the word "computer" in the concept of computer applications in education, which describes the use of the facilities offered by computers in educational policies as well as in educational applications at school and grade level, is used to describe the use of the data storage and
... torage and processing facilities offered by computers in educational settings in parallel with technological developments in the late 1980s "Information Technology/ Information and communication technologies (ICT)" (Pelgrum and Law, 2003) . Since the early 1990s, the computer and internet offered multimedia, video and audio transmission, simulation, access to different information and human resources, as well as technologies such as laser discs have enabled the development of learning environments envisaged by the constructivist learning understanding by using ICT resources. In the 2000s, blogs, wikis, video and audio sharing environments, simultaneous and asynchronous online communication facilities and mobile technologies have been involved (Wheeler S, Yeomans and Wheeler D, 2008). By 2007, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines the concept of ICT in a very wide range of terms: The term information and communication technologies (ICT) describes the forms of technology employed for the purpose of transmitting, processing, storing, creating, presenting, sharing or changing information electronically. This broad definition of ICT includes equipment and services such as radio, television, video, DVD fixed or mobile telephones, satellite systems and computers, computer networks, as well as video-conferencing, e-mail and blogs related to these technologies (UNESCO, 2007). From the mid-1990s to the 2010s, both in the literature and in reports and reviews published by various national or international initiatives, it is seen that information technologies and information and communication technologies concepts are emphasized during the integration process. Law and Plomp (2003) also point out that the two concepts can be used in the same sense and characterize ICT resources in various texts; It also states that similar synonyms can occur for concepts such as computer literacy-ICT literacy, ICT integration in education-ICT integration in curriculum.