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Environments with varying reward contingencies constitute a challenge to many living creatures. In such conditions, animals capable of adaptation and learning derive an advantage. Recent studies suggest that neuromodulatory dynamics are a key factor in regulating learning and adaptivity when reward conditions are subject to variability. In biological neural networks, specific circuits generate modulatory signals, particularly in situations that involve learning cues such as a reward or noveldoi:10.1109/cec.2007.4424781 dblp:conf/cec/SoltoggioDMF07 fatcat:kxd2zifrxrccjgfyh4p5fvomsi