Global and regional right ventricular mechanics in repaired tetralogy of Fallot with chronic severe pulmonary regurgitation: a three-dimensional echocardiography study
Background Data about the right ventricular (RV) mechanics adaptation to volume overload in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) are limited. Accordingly, we sought to assess the mechanics of the functional remodeling occurring in the RV of rToF with severe pulmonary regurgitation. Methods We used three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DTE) to obtain RV data sets from 33 rToF patients and 30 age- and sex- matched controls. A 3D mesh model of the RV was generated, and RV
... global and regional longitudinal (LS) and circumferential (CS) strain components, and the relative contribution of longitudinal (LEF), radial (REF) and anteroposterior (AEF) wall motion to global RV ejection fraction (RVEF) were computed using the ReVISION method. Results Corresponding to decreased global RVEF (45 ± 6% vs 55 ± 5%, p < 0.0001), rToF patients demonstrated lower absolute values of LEF (17 ± 4 vs 28 ± 4), REF (20 ± 5 vs 25 ± 4) and AEF (17 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4) than controls (p < 0.01). However, only the relative contribution of LEF to global RVEF (0.39 ± 0.09 vs 0.52 ± 0.05, p < 0.0001) was significantly decreased in rToF, whereas the contribution of REF (0.45 ± 0.08 vs 0.46 ± 0.04, p > 0.05) and AEF (0.38 ± 0.09 vs 0.39 ± 0.04, p > 0.05) to global RVEF was similar to controls. Accordingly, rToF patients showed lower 3D RV global LS (-16.94 ± 2.9 vs -23.22 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001) and CS (-19.79 ± 3.3 vs -22.81 ± 3.5, p < 0.01) than controls. However, looking at the regional RV deformation, the 3D CS was lower in rToF than in controls only in the basal RV free-wall segment (p < 0.01). 3D RV LS was reduced in all RV free-wall segments in rToF (p < 0.0001), but similar to controls in the septum (p > 0.05). Conclusions 3DTE allows a quantitative evaluation of the mechanics of global RVEF. In rToF with chronic volume overload, the relative contribution of the longitudinal shortening to global RVEF is affected more than either the radial or the anteroposterior components.