Enabling Green cellular networks: A survey and outlook
In last couple of decades, cellular networks have revolutionized the way users access communication networks but they required a huge effort to operators for the development of a wireless infrastructure which has been designed considering deployment costs with ubiquitous coverage and service quality targets. The traditional "macro" Base Stations (BSs) that have been used so far turned out to be inefficient from the operational costs point of view mainly because of their high energy consumption.
... Today, green communication is one of the main design goals of future mobile networks and current research aims to enable sustainable growth of broadband wireless infrastructure. Different solutions have been proposed so far for improving the energy efficiency of wireless networks. Small cells based on low-cost low-power Access Points (APs) are a promising solution to limit emission power and improve the spectral efficiency. Dynamic radio resource management can avoid energy wastage by adapting network parameters to load variations while satisfying quality constraints. Flexible hardware platforms enables APs to adapt operational point to changing conditions. The contribution of this survey is threefold. We provide an analysis of the models proposed in literature to evaluate the energy efficiency of current wireless architecture. We present green metrics that have been used and theoretical trade-offs that have been investigated. And finally, following a proposed classification, we present and critically discuss energy efficiency enablers recently proposed by the wireless research community. 1