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In order to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of free-space optical (FSO) communication systems employing binary phase-shift keying subcarrier intensity modulation (BPSK-SIM), an innovative hybrid modulation scheme called PPM-MSK-SIM is proposed, which is based on pulse position modulation (PPM) and minimum shift keying (MSK) subcarrier intensity modulation. Subsequently, the BER performance of PPM-MSK-SIM is studied in detail for an FSO system over log-normal turbulence channelsdoi:10.1109/jphot.2015.2449265 fatcat:swp6ey22jbgdxoajaxuhbmi6om