A 0.13 μm CMOS System-on-Chip for a 512 × 424 Time-of-Flight Image Sensor With Multi-Frequency Photo-Demodulation up to 130 MHz and 2 GS/s ADC

Cyrus S. Bamji, Patrick O'Connor, Tamer Elkhatib, Swati Mehta, Barry Thompson, Lawrence A. Prather, Dane Snow, Onur Can Akkaya, Andy Daniel, Andrew D. Payne, Travis Perry, Mike Fenton (+1 others)
2015 IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits  
We introduce a 512 × 424 time-of-flight (TOF) depth image sensor designed in a TSMC 0.13 μm LP 1P5M CMOS process, suitable for use in Microsoft Kinect for XBOX ONE. The 10 μm × 10 μm pixel incorporates a TOF detector that operates using the quantum efficiency modulation (QEM) technique at high modulation frequencies of up to 130 MHz, achieves a modulation contrast of 67% at 50 MHz and a responsivity of 0.14 A/W at 860 nm. The TOF sensor includes a 2 GS/s 10 bit signal path, which is used for
more » ... hich is used for the high ADC bandwidth requirements of the system that requires many ADC conversions per frame. The chip also comprises a clock generation circuit featuring a programmable phase and frequency clock generator with 312.5-ps phase step resolution derived from a 1.6 GHz oscillator. An integrated shutter engine and a programmable digital micro-sequencer allows an extremely flexible multi-gain/multi-shutter and multi-frequency/multi-phase operation. All chip data is transferred using two 4-lane MIPI D-PHY interfaces with a total of 8 Gb/s input/output bandwidth. The reported experimental results demonstrate a wide depth range of operation (0.8-4.2 m), small accuracy error ( 1%), very low depth uncertainty ( 0.5% of actual distance), and very high dynamic range ( 64 dB). Index Terms-Natural user interface (NUI), time-of-flight (TOF), quantum efficiency modulation (QEM), range imaging, 3D imaging.
doi:10.1109/jssc.2014.2364270 fatcat:qqdfyj2ssvhntp3ekkctij2v3m