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Human groups have long faced ecological threats such as resource stress and warfare, and must also overcome strains on coordination and cooperation that are imposed by growing social complexity. How do societies adapt to these challenges? Tightness-looseness (TL) theory suggests that ecological threat and social complexity both lead societies to become culturally tighter, with stronger norms and harsher punishment of deviant behavior. TL theory further predicts that tightening is associateddoi:10.31234/osf.io/9s57z fatcat:76kuptppmfhm5hx3bmch7zlkle