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Nature inspired meta-heuristics are largely used to solve optimization problems. However, these techniques should be adapted when solving constrained optimization problems, which are common in real world situations. Here an adaptive penalty approach (called Adaptive Penalty Method, APM) is combined with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique to solve constrained optimization problems. This approach is analyzed using a benchmark of test-problems and 5 mechanical engineering problems.doi:10.5335/ciatec.v8i1.6023 fatcat:blswr7snsrfnvorml3ezeummye