Spatio-Temporal Graph Contrastive Learning [article]

Xu Liu, Yuxuan Liang, Yu Zheng, Bryan Hooi, Roger Zimmermann
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Deep learning models are modern tools for spatio-temporal graph (STG) forecasting. Despite their effectiveness, they require large-scale datasets to achieve better performance and are vulnerable to noise perturbation. To alleviate these limitations, an intuitive idea is to use the popular data augmentation and contrastive learning techniques. However, existing graph contrastive learning methods cannot be directly applied to STG forecasting due to three reasons. First, we empirically discover
more » ... t the forecasting task is unable to benefit from the pretrained representations derived from contrastive learning. Second, data augmentations that are used for defeating noise are less explored for STG data. Third, the semantic similarity of samples has been overlooked. In this paper, we propose a Spatio-Temporal Graph Contrastive Learning framework (STGCL) to tackle these issues. Specifically, we improve the performance by integrating the forecasting loss with an auxiliary contrastive loss rather than using a pretrained paradigm. We elaborate on four types of data augmentations, which disturb data in terms of graph structure, time domain, and frequency domain. We also extend the classic contrastive loss through a rule-based strategy that filters out the most semantically similar negatives. Our framework is evaluated across three real-world datasets and four state-of-the-art models. The consistent improvements demonstrate that STGCL can be used as an off-the-shelf plug-in for existing deep models.
arXiv:2108.11873v1 fatcat:ktkpm3m33fdr5lxglcmqcijpce