The Voice of the `Ulamâ': Fatwas and Religious Authority in Indonesia

Nico J.G Kaptein
2004 Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions  
1) I use the term Indonesia not only to denote the present Republic of Indonesia, but also its predecessor the Netherlands East Indies. (2) In the Indonesian language the word'ulamâ' (which in Arabic is a plural) denotes both the plural and the singular (in Arabic'âlim). ARCHIVES DE SCIENCES SOCIALES DES RELIGIONS (3) This does not mean that after the rise of modernist thought in Indonesian Islam at the beginning of the twentieth century, when ijtihâd ('independent reasoning') became popular in
more » ... Indonesia, traditionalist thinking disappeared. I shall return to this point later. ARCHIVES DE SCIENCES SOCIALES DES RELIGIONS (6) This understanding of taqlîd was not accepted by all scholars, JUYNBOLL, 1930, pp. 372-373.
doi:10.4000/assr.1038 fatcat:zrtdkwe5kvc5xg3olbxp5og5he