Heparan sulfate enhances invasion by human colon carcinoma cell lines through expression of CD44 variant exon 3
Clinical Cancer Research
CD44 variant exon (CD44v) 3 is a heparan sulfate-binding isoform of CD44. The role of CD44v3 in invasion and metastasis associated with heparan sulfate in colon cancer cell lines and cases of colon cancer was examined. Expression of CD44v3 mRNA and protein was observed in five of six human colorectal cancer cell lines. Colo320 and WiDr cells expressed CD44v3 at high levels. Heparan sulfate treatment increased the invasive activity of Colo320 and WiDr cells to rates 14.3 and 12.6 times higher,
... spectively, than that of untreated cells. However, heparan sulfate treatment did not affect cell growth. Repression of CD44v3 protein production by antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment reduced the binding affinities and capacities for heparan sulfate by Colo320 and WiDr cells in comparison with that of control cells, and it also reduced the invasiveness of both cell lines to one-fifth that of control cells. In heparan sulfate-treated Colo320 cells, the levels of CD44v3 protein in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction and moesin-precipitated fraction were increased, suggesting that heparan sulfate treatment facilitates association of CD44 molecules with the cytoskeleton. Immunohistochemical analysis showed CD44v3 to be expressed in 21 of 37 (57%) colorectal cancer cases. Positive CD44v3 expression was associated with more advanced pathological stage and poorer prognosis than negative CD44v3 expression. These data support a role for CD44v3 in invasion and metastasis by colorectal carcinoma cells.