The influence of UGT polymorphisms as biomarkers in solid organ transplantation

Andrea Yuen, Federico Innocenti, Robert Dupuis
In solid organ transplant patients, it is important to maintain a fine balance between preventing rejection and reducing adverse effects. Several immunosuppressive agents such tacrolimus, cyclosporine, sirolimus and everolimus require therapeutic drug monitoring. The study of germline variation of the genome has opened novel opportunities to individualize therapy. Among the currently available immunosuppressive agents, cyclosporine, tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid are in vitro substrates of
more » ... UGT1A and 2B families of glucuronidation enzymes. Mycophenolic acid, either given as mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolate sodium, is the most frequently used antiproliferative immunosuppressant. Mycophenolic acid is a prodrug which is rapidly de-esterified in the gut wall, blood, liver and tissue to the active moiety, mycophenolic acid (MPA). MPA undergoes significant hepatic metabolism to several metabolites. The 7-hydroxyglucuronide MPA is the major metabolite and is inactive. This paper reviews the current status of the genetic associations between germline UGT variants and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mycophenolic acid. Our conclusive assessment of the studies conducted so far is that these germline markers are not ready to be used in the clinic to individualize mycophenolic acid dosing and improve outcome. Novel approaches are required to identify new genetic determinants of outcomes in transplantation.
doi:10.17615/vywe-d044 fatcat:3e26sr26efggpk3uk3zeggmhfm