Deep Character-Level Anomaly Detection Based on a Convolutional Autoencoder for Zero-Day Phishing URL Detection

Seok-Jun Bu, Sung-Bae Cho
2021 Electronics  
Considering the fatality of phishing attacks, the data-driven approach using massive URL observations has been verified, especially in the field of cyber security. On the other hand, the supervised learning approach relying on known attacks has limitations in terms of robustness against zero-day phishing attacks. Moreover, it is known that it is critical for the phishing detection task to fully exploit the sequential features from the URL characters. Taken together, to ensure both
more » ... and intelligibility, we propose the combination of a convolution operation to model the character-level URL features and a deep convolutional autoencoder (CAE) to consider the nature of zero-day attacks. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets consisting of 222,541 URLs showed the highest performance among the latest deep-learning methods. We demonstrated the superiority of the proposed method by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in addition to 10-fold cross-validation and confirmed that the sensitivity improved by 3.98% compared to the latest deep model.
doi:10.3390/electronics10121492 fatcat:hwo4gsivlrdzno6h6kyxrtsedu