Comparison of Chloroplast genomes of Gynura species:Sequence Variation, Genome Rearrangement and Divergence studies [post]

2019 unpublished
Some Gynura species were reported to be natural anti-diabetic plants. The chloroplast genomes of four Gynura species were sequenced for hybridizations to improve agronomic traits. There are only 4 genera of tribe Senecioneae have published chloroplast genome in Genbank up to now. The internal relationships of the genus Gynura and the relationship of the genus Gynura with other genera in tribe Senecioneae need further researches. Results The chloroplast genome of 4 Gynura species were sequenced,
more » ... assembled and annotated. Comparing with other 12 Senecioneae species, the chloroplast genome features were detailedly analyzed. Subsequently, the differences of the microsatellites and repeats type in the tribe were found. By comparison, the IR expansion and contraction is conserved in the genera Gynura, Dendrosenecio and Ligularia. The region from 25,000 to 50,000 bp is relatively not conservative but the 7 ndh genes in this region are under purifying selection with small change in amino acids. The phylogenetic tree shows two major clades, same as the sequence divergence in region 25,000 to 50,000 bp. Based on the oldest Artemisia pollen fossil, the divergence time were estimated. Conclusions Sequencing of chloroplast genome of the 4 Gynura species help us to develop abundant genetic resources. The phylogenetic relationships and divergence time among 4 Gynura and 16 Senecioneae species were sorted out by comparing the chloroplast genomes. The phylogenetic relationship of the genera Gynura and Ligularia is different with former work and further morphology and genome-wide analysis are needed to clarify the genera relationship. Background Gynura is a genus of flowering plants in the tribe Senecioneae of the family Asteraceae endemic to Asia, which contains 44 species in total [1]. Many species of the genus Gynura
doi:10.21203/rs.2.9989/v3 fatcat:rmizovarybbf7lr7erqqnxsj7u