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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity against phage via spacer-encoded CRISPR RNAs that are complementary to invasive nucleic acids. Here, we challenge Streptococcus thermophilus with a bacteriophage, and used PCR-based metagenomics to monitor phage-derived spacers daily for 15 days in two experiments. Spacers that target the host chromosome are infrequent and strongly selected against, suggesting autoimmunity is lethal. Indoi:10.1038/ncomms2440 pmid:23385575 fatcat:cuzx6l6s4jfwjlx2ug47jf3gn4