1871 Scientific American  
raw brick in the well known manner, with furnaces, eyes, and crevices for the proper distribution of heat, is p i aced a course of bricks, in such manner as to leave horizontal, lon gitudinal, and transverse flues, which intersect each other. The outermost fl ues are quite close to the verge of the kiln. All the flues are in proper connection with the smoke crev I ces, so that all the prodilcts of combustion enter the same. V pon this course is laid another course, set on edge and close
more » ... e and close together, so as to cover the flues made in the first course. The brick of the top course are preferably fire brick, so as not to be injured by rain water. Cement may by used, to securely close the joints in the top course and prevent the escape of heat through crevices. Samuel C. Brewer, of 'Yater Yall e y, Miss., is the patentee of this improvement. .1-_ Preparing and Bleaching Paper Pulp. John Campbell, of Chatham Yillage, N. Y., has invented an improvement in preparing and bleaching paper pulp and other fibrous materials. His invention has for its object to impro\'e an apparatus for preparing and bleaching such sub stances, patented in 1S69, so as to make it simpler in con struction, cheaper, and more effective in operation; and it consists in a combination of a receiver and supply tube, with an induction air pipe. The paper pulp or other material to be bleached is placed in a suitable Yessel, and agitated and thoroughly mixed by a paddle wheel, working in a compartment with an inclined or curved floor, in the ordinary manner. An air pump or blower may be used, or anything that will force the atmospheric air through the mass. The inventor prefers to use two, one at each end of the engine vr vessel holding the material to be bltached. The pipes from the blower are led into the engine in such a direction that the currents of air, in addition to hastening the bleaching of the material by rapidly combining with said materials the chemicals used, will also drive the mass in the same direction in which it is driven by the paddle wheel. 'Yith one or both the air pipes is connected a tube, provided with a stop cock, near its intersection with the said air pipe. To the upper end of the tube is connected a cup or receiver, to receive the chemicals to be introduced into the engine or vessel holding the material to be bleached. With this con struction of the apparatus, a chlorine solution, of one third less strength than is used in any other process, is placed in the engine, and the chemicals to be introduced into the solution are placed in the receiver. The paper pulp or other material to be bleached is placed in the engine, and the pad dle wheel and fans are set in motion. Then, by adjusting a stop cock, the chemicals in the receiver are introduced with more or less rapidity, as may be desired, into the air pipe, and are carried by the blast of air into the engine, and thor oughly and rapidly intermingled with the material, thus producing ozone oxygen with great rapidity, without the use of a chlorine gas generator, and, it is claimed, bleaching the mass of pulp in fifteen minutes. When the bleaching is completed, the stop cock admitting the chemicals is closed, and the stirring and air blast are con tinued for a sufficient length of time to drive off all the re maining gases before they have had time to injure the ma terial. .1_-. The Progress oC Discovery. Science has long been known to have a romantic aspect, and her wonders are becoming daily more numerous. Poe try and the exercise of the imagination, are exhibited by many of her most enthusiastic votaries; and a glance at our letter files will show her comic side, although humor must be c o nsidered as her last attribute. We condense a letter from a correspondent, address unknown, into the following statements, remarkable for their originality, and the courage with which they are advanced: Fat in the body is stored up during sleep. Nature makes us sleep more (if we let her) before a rain storm than at any other time, to give us an extra supply of fat for heating and uatB1proojing purposes. When we feel unusually drowsy (not having fatigued ourselves, or taken a narcotic), we may feel perfectly certain that rain, hail, or Bnow, will fall in our district within twenty-four hours. Our correspondent rightly claims these discoveries as his own, and says, with obvious truth, that he "never met, or heard of, any one who could foretell the approach of rain, etc., by the above metl!.od." Neither did we. He is sound in the last assertion, without doubt. __ e·_ The RIghts oC Labor. "In this land of liberty," writes a correspondent of the Haverhill Gazette, "a man should have a right to sell his labor-the work of his hands-at any price he pleases; he should be thesolejudge-no one else has a right to interfere. It is the old oligarchy of slavery. What is the difference whether you are a slave to an individual or to a society? The result is the same. Every man has a right to fix the price at which he will work, the number of hours he will work, and all the conditions relating thereto. It is a matter which concerns himself alone, and the capitalist has -:.he same right; he is the sole judge how much he can aff ord to pay. No society or combination has a right to interfere. The whole question of wages is and should be a personal matter between the employer and the employe. What right has an outsiue-a third person-to say at what price or how many hours per day,one man shall work for another? None at all. " If I can get three dollars for working ten hours per day, and am strong, robust and hearty, and believe it for my in terest and the interest of my family,-if I can better educate them, impart to them more culture and refinement, and give $dtntifit them a higher social position, by wo rking fourteen lwurs for four dollars and twenty-jive cents, who has a right to say I shall not work the fourteen hours per day? How or where does any one-the legislature or a society-fi nd the right to step between me and the man who wants my labor, and say how much he shall pay or how much I shall receive? It ie time this question was settled. The sooner it is settled, the better it will be for laboring men. Capital can stand it bet ter than labor, because it does not require daily food, meat, and drink to live upon." _ .•. -{lan Flnln!!; and Soldering Apparatus. Leopold Charly Straub, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has ill"V'ented a new and improved can filling and soldering apparatus, which is an important improvement if, as claimed, it will economize time and material during the operation, and produce satis factory workmanship. The inTention consists, first, in the arrangement, on a ro tary frame, of a series of swivel disks, on which three or more cans can at once be supported, one to be filled, one closed, and the third soldered. It also consists in the appli cation to the said rotary frame of certain gearing and spring catches, whereby the can which is being soldered can be ro tated under the soldering apparatus to receive the binding material around. the cover. A hinged hopper for filling, and a new arrangement of soldering apparatus is also employed. These cans are simultaneously operated upon. One can un der the hopper is filled, the next receives the cover, and the third is soldered. When one has been soldered it is re leased, another empty can is brought into position, and so on continuously.
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican07081871-25 fatcat:yefbawnx5nf5dfaqq4iw4sxflu