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Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems usually utilize buried vertical heat exchangers, named borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). The accurate design or simulation of a GCHP system requires the calculation of the time-dependent outlet temperature from the BHEs, Tout. However, the most widely employed BHE simulation models yield the time evolution either of the mean temperature of the BHE-ground surface, Tsm, or of that of the fluid, Tfm. In transient regime, it is not easy to relate Tout todoi:10.3390/en13040828 fatcat:obdeye7jqja4jkufkaw37oevqu