Factors Affecting Dental Service Utilisation in Indonesia: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of dental service utilisation in Indonesia and its association with social determinants at individual and community levels. Cross-sectional data from the 2014 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS-5) was analysed. Individual independent variables included age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, economic status, health insurance, dental pain, self-reported mouth ulcers, self-rated health status, unmet healthcare needs and smoking status, while
... ing status, while community independent variables included cognitive, structural social capital and residential area. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations between independent variables at different levels and the outcome of dental service utilisation. Of the total sample of 16,860 adults aged 15 years or older in our study, around 86.4% never visited a dentist. Dental service utilisation was associated with older age, female, currently not married, higher education level and economic status, health insurance, dental pain, self-reported mouth ulcers, met healthcare needs, never smoking, living in urban areas and communities with high structural social capital. Both individual and broader social determinants influenced dental service utilisation in Indonesia. These factors should be considered in the formulation of oral health policies and programmes aiming to improve dental service utilisation in the country.