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How is it possible for presidents to secure real influence from political appointees if these individuals spend so little time on the job before leaving government service? Many empirical studies have noted that once appointees have learned how to do their job and have come to trust the civil servants in their agencies, they are ready to leave these posts. Yet this suggests a disfunctional bureaucratic structure that apparently does not exist, since many studies also tell us that these samedoi:10.1093/jopart/muh036 fatcat:zkxnb4i7q5ahvpkamn572vjc4e