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Several young damaged Norway spruce stands in eastern and central Finland were observed from 2013 to 2016. The damage included trees with heavy resin flow, necrotic foliage, stem and branch cankers and dead trees. Pest identification resulted in the tortricid moth Cydia pactolana whose occurrence was always associated with the presence of the ascomycete pathogen Neonectria fuckeliana. Both the insect and the disease contributed to the extent of the damage, but it is not possible to say in whichdoi:10.1080/02827581.2018.1427791 fatcat:suuixurb55gcjmhhjq5gjhcm3i