Aetiologies of Acute Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children
Journal of Medical Science And clinical Research
Diarrheal disease and acute gastroenteritis is one of the important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Most of the clinical burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) occurs in children. In India 10-13 children under 5 years of age die every 1 h due to diarrhoea Dehydration is the major cause of diarrhoeal deaths and 90% of them can be prevented with use of oral rehydration solution. Material and Methods: One to two stool samples which were free from urine
... ere free from urine contamination were collected from each admitted patients during the admission, or within 24 h of hospital admission. Stool samples were processed within one hour after being sent to the laboratory. Direct observation under light microscopy for white blood cells, red blood cells, ova and parasites, bacteria and motility was done. Stool cultures were performed as per the diagnosis and requirement. Each case was followed from admission to discharge and data including age, sex, residency area, family size, nutrition, breast feeding and the vaccination history was taken. Patients were categorized in to five groups 1. Entamoeba histolytica infections 2. Bacterial infections 3. Rotavirus infections 4. Mixed infections and 5. Unidentified group. Results: A total of 169 cases of diarrheal diseases were included in the study admitted during study period. Out of 169 cases 84 were male and 85 were female. 44% of the infections were identified as either parasitic, bacterial, viral or mixed variety while in 56% no specific infectious cause was detected. The most common clinical presentation was diarrhoea in all the groups highest in rotaviral group (100%) while lowest in Entamoeba histolytica group (50%). CRP (C reactive proteins) levels were raised in mixed infection group (mean CRP 58.22). Conclusion: Acute gastroenteritis is an important cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age. Preventive measures, including vaccination strategies, sanitation and clean water supply are necessary to reduce acute gastroenteritis -related morbidity.