Systematic Review on Local Ancestor Inference From a Mathematical and Algorithmic Perspective
Frontiers in Genetics
Genotypic data provide deep insights into the population history and medical genetics. The local ancestry inference (LAI) (also termed local ancestry deconvolution) method uses the hidden Markov model (HMM) to solve the mathematical problem of ancestry reconstruction based on genomic data. HMM is combined with other statistical models and machine learning techniques for particular genetic tasks in a series of computer tools. In this article, we surveyed the mathematical structure, application
... aracteristics, historical development, and benchmark analysis of the LAI method in detail, which will help researchers better understand and further develop LAI methods. Firstly, we extensively explore the mathematical structure of each model and its characteristic applications. Next, we use bibliometrics to show detailed model application fields and list articles to elaborate on the historical development. LAI publications had experienced a peak period during 2006–2016 and had kept on moving in the following years. The efficiency, accuracy, and stability of the existing models were evaluated by the benchmark. We find that phased data had higher accuracy in comparison with unphased data. We summarize these models with their distinct advantages and disadvantages. The Loter model uses dynamic programming to obtain a globally optimal solution with its parameter-free advantage. Aligned bases can be used directly in the Seqmix model if the genotype is hard to call. This research may help model developers to realize current challenges, develop more advanced models, and enable scholars to select appropriate models according to given populations and datasets.