Implicit Sleep Mode Determination in Power Management of Event-Driven Deeply Embedded Systems [chapter]

André Sieber, Karsten Walther, Stefan Nürnberger, Jörg Nolte
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Testing sensor network applications is an essential and a difficult task. Due to their distributed and faulty nature, severe resource constraints, unobservable interactions, and limited human interaction, sensor networks, make monitoring and debugging of applications strenuous and more challenging. In this paper we present KleeNet -a Klee based platform independent bug hunting tool for sensor network applications before deployment -which can automatically test applications for all possible
more » ... s, and hence, ensures memory safety for TinyOS based applications. Upon finding a bug, KleeNet generates a concrete test case with real input values identifying a specific error path in a program. Additionally, we show that KleeNet integrates well into TinyOS application development life cycle with minimum manual effort, making it easy for developers to test their applications. . . . NewRoute * msg = (NewRoute * ) payload ; // message processing c a l l Queue . enqueue (msg ) ; . . . RouteUpdate * msg = ( RouteUpdate * ) c a l l Queue . dequeue ( ) ; // f u r t h e r message processing . . . Listing 3: Casting between pointers to different structure types $ make k l e e n e t t e s t s t r u c t KLEE: WARNING: Struct types don ' t match KLEE: %s t r u c t . NewRoute * −> %s t r u c t . RouteUpdate * ABSTRACT Self-organizing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained much attention in recent research and industrial activities. Such WSNs enable measurements and information dissemination over large areas. A common node in a WSN is usually equipped with a microcontroller and a radio transceiver. A challenge in large networks is to keep the firmware of the nodes up to date. Once the network is deployed, it is hardly possible to access every node physically and to upload a new firmware. Therefore, this paper describes a technical solution for this problem using the radio transceiver for the upload procedure. The presented solution focuses on heterogeneous WSNs that contain several groups of nodes and where each group fulfills a different task. Abstract Sensor network hardware designs consist of a central microcontroller, to which sensors and communication peripherals are connected. Resource arbitration and concurrency management must be implemented in software. Existing hardware arbitration mechanisms use explicit locking to protect against resource conflicts. Explicit locking may lead to deadlock, which must be avoided for long-term sensor network deployments. We present a power-saving resource arbitration architecture that is deadlock-free, portable, and resource-efficient. The architecture explicitly manages inter-device dependencies to know what devices to power down. Hardware Device ABSTRACT Most nodes in current wireless sensor networks are batterypowered and hence strongly constrained in their energy budget. While a variety of energy-efficient MAC protocols specifically tailored to sensor networks has been developed, the data rate limitation of the underlying hardware still represents a lower bound for the time required to transfer packets, and thus directly contributes to the energy requirement for transmissions. Further energy savings for given platforms can only be achieved by downsizing the packet, e.g. by means of in-network processing or data compression. In this paper, we present our approach towards an adaptive packet compression framework for sensor network applications that compresses sensor data with the locally optimal energy efficiency ratio. ABSTRACT Neighborhood relations are changing over time in wireless sensor networks due to different hardware or environmental effects. These effects and memory limitations require a balanced neighborhood management to ensure agility, stability, symmetry, and connectivity. The proposed neighborhood management protocol Mahalle is optimized with regard to these four criteria. Agility and stability are achieved by ALE, a new adaptive link estimator. ABSTRACT Accurate localization of objects is often very important, thus various methods and systems exist. Unfortunately, some support easy deployment but are less accurate while others are more accurate but require a complex and timeconsuming deployment stage. When the localization system meets some demands, a widely self-organizing deployment becomes possible. This paper describes which pre-conditions and abilities are required, how self-configuration could be realized for such a system and which minimal number of calibration steps are required during deployment. ABSTRACT The recently standardized IEEE 802.15.4 protocol provides many appealing features, such as low power, low cost, low data-rate, simplicity, and timeliness guarantee for delaybound, energy, and bandwidth critical applications. However, when treating applications with such requirements as in the medical field, several problems arise, triggering the need of an efficient enhancement of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol including the fine tuning of its parameters. In this paper, we discuss the suitability of the protocol and explore its limitations for health care applications. We propose a solution to overcome those limitations and derive the most efficient IEEE 802.15.4-based network parameters setting for urgent medical services. ABSTRACT This work covers our first results of an empirical performance comparison between dynamic source routing and greedy routing in a real-world wireless sensor network deployment. The test environment is based on a 7 × 7 grid of 49 battery operated Tmote Sky sensor nodes. We briefly sketch the protocol implementations and the experimental setup used in this work, and present our findings from the measurement data we have gathered so far. ABSTRACT Wireless sensor and actor networks commonly consist of a rather large number of more or less widely distributed nodes. The resulting spatial complexity arises severe software related maintenance problems like application code and configuration updates. This paper presents the Ghost subsystem for efficient remote software maintenance in such networks. Besides safety, security and operation in heterogeneous environments we also address practical aspects like performance and resource requirements. Some results from a real-world installation will close this paper. ABSTRACT Fundamental differences exist between academic research on wireless sensor networks and industrial wireless sensor networks as envisaged by the BMBF-funded project ZESAN. Their requirements and underlying assumptions are described to bridge the gap between research and industrial application. ABSTRACT The European project FRONTS aims at understanding adaptive large-scale heterogeneous wireless sensor networks acting in a dynamic environment. This includes designing different mathematical models beyond the state of the art for such networks. Based on these models, a new network infrastructure will be developed, followed by a large set of algorithms solving global tasks like exploration of unknown areas or target tracking. We provide a coherent package consisting of a simulation framework, hardware, and a remotely accessible testbed, building a powerful tool for evaluation and validation of the results of FRONTS. Our framework allows for easy exchangeability between simulation and realworld experiment, as well as rapid engineering.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02118-3_2 fatcat:prjsfyqcojcnpcetw7vfnvqwpy