A Precise Tracking Algorithm Using PDR and Wi-Fi/iBeacon Corrections for Smartphones

Tuan D. Vy, Thu L. N. Nguyen, Yoan Shin
2021 IEEE Access  
Considering smartphone-based indoor localization and tracking, combination of Wi-Fi fingerprinting and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) becomes prevalent due to wide deployment of indoor Wi-Fi access points and easily access of inertial measurement units (IMUs) on smartphones. Since Wi-Fi fingerprinting depends on the similarities between online and offline received signal strengths, it suffers from the fluctuation of radio signal measurements. Meanwhile, the PDR relies on the IMUs, which
more » ... accumulated errors in long walking distance. In this paper, we aim to improve the indoor tracking accuracy, while filling up the gap between two popular Android and iOS platforms. In particular, we propose a hybrid tracking algorithm that integrates the PDR with Wi-Fi/iBeacon signal features. There are three key points in our paper. First, we process Wi-Fi/iBeacon signals to build conversion functions to convert signals to related proximity distances. Besides, in order to support mobile tracking, we introduce a placement methodology for iBeacon installation for a specific region of interest. Second, a mobile smartphone uses an improved PDR to localize itself, while incorporating Wi-Fi/iBeacon data for estimating a starting point and correcting its location along the walking path. Finally, we build an iOS app to implement the proposed scheme and display visual tracking results. Experiment results show that our proposed scheme is more robust and accurate compared to the conventional schemes. INDEX TERMS smartphone based indoor localization; pedestrian dead reckoning; iBeacon placement methodology; Wi-Fi proximity I. INTRODUCTION
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3069261 fatcat:eeabouqa75dftbrh5yryxitrya