Arsenic trioxide resistance in acute promyelocytic leukemia: More to it than PML mutations [article]

Nithya Balasundaram, Saravanan Ganesan, Ezhilarasi Chendamarai, Hamenth Kumar Palani, Arvind Venkatraman, Ansu Abu Alex, Sachin David, Sanjeev Krishna, Anu Korula, Nancy Beryl Janet, Poonkuzhali Balasubramanian, Vikram Mathews
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Acquired genetic mutations can confer resistance to arsenic trioxide (ATO) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, such resistance-conferring mutations are rare and do not explain the majority of disease recurrence seen in the clinic. We have generated a stable ATO resistant promyelocytic cell from a ATO sensitive NB4 cell line. We also noted that another ATRA resistant cell line (UF1) was cross resistant to ATO. We have characterized these resistant cell lines and
more » ... ved that they significantly differed in their immunophenotype, drug transporter expression, drug resistance mutation profile and were also cross-resistant to other conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The NB4 derived resistant cell line had the classical A216V PML-B2 domain mutation while the UF1 cell line did not. Gene expression profiling revealed prominent dysregulation of the cellular metabolic pathways in the resistant cell lines. Glycolytic inhibition by 2-DG was efficient and comparable to the standard of care (ATO) in targeting the sensitive APL cell lines and was also effective in the in vivo transplantable APL mouse model; however, it did not affect the ATO resistant cell lines. The survival of the resistant cell lines was significantly affected by compounds targeting the mitochondrial respiration irrespective of the existence of ATO resistance-conferring genetic mutations. Our data demonstrate the addition of mitocans can overcome ATO resistance. We further demonstrated that the combination of ATO and mitocans has the potential in the treatment of non-M3 AML and the translation of this approach in the clinic needs to be explored further.
doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.154633 fatcat:rldggpub25fwdhktwsk3ybrtr4