Seismic Stratigraphy and History of Deep Circulation and Sediment Drift Development in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea [chapter]

M.A. Arthur, S.P. Srivastava, M. Kaminski, R. Jarrard, J. Osler
1989 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, 105 Scientific Results  
Drilling results and seismic-reflection records at and across Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 645 (western Baffin Bay), 646, and 647 (Labrador Sea) provide important constraints on the history of deep-water circulation and sedimen tation in response to Cenozoic climatic change, as well as the tectonic evolution of the region. Sites 646 and 647 were drilled on the flanks of two sediment drift deposits-the Eirik Ridge and Gloria Drift, respectively. Age control at Site 645 was poor because of
more » ... he restricted biotas there, but the drill site provides a continuous sequence from the lower Mi ocene to the present. Sediment at Site 646 was deposited at high rates, providing a high resolution record of the last 8.5 Ma. At Site 647 sedimentation was variable and discontinuous, but a complete upper-lower Eocene through lower Oli gocene sequence was recovered, whereas the upper Oligocene to Holocene sequence was interrupted by several hiatuses. The drift sequence at Site 646 was constructed after the middle to early Pliocene (ca. 4.5 Ma). Before that time, evi dence exists for variable bottom-current activity, with events at about 7.5 Ma (a change in water-mass characteristics and decreasing velocities) and 5.6 Ma (an increase in current velocity preceding the major 4.5-Ma event; R2 regional re flector). The 7.5-Ma event produced a major regional reflector (R3/R4), which was originally thought to be Eocene/ Oligocene in age. A major water-mass change also occurred at the onset of ice-rafting at about 2.5 Ma in the late Plio cene. In seismic records no evidence exists of drift building before the early Pliocene, but a probable late-middle Mio cene erosional event occurred on the south flank of Eirik Ridge and along the West Greenland margin. Sediment supply from the Imarssuak mid-ocean canyon (IMOC) increased concurrently with the advent of drift construction. Gloria Drift also was built largely after the late Miocene. A major increase in sediment supply occurred in the early Pliocene, following a major hiatus (5.6 to 2.5 Ma; equivalent to the youngest possible age for the R2 reflector underly ing Gloria Drift), and most seismic records exhibit sediment waves above this horizon. This increased sediment supply is the result of hemipelagic deposition from encroaching deposits of the North Atlantic mid-ocean canyon, as well as to supply of ice-rafted detritus in the late Pliocene. A hiatus encompasses the interval from approximately 17.5 to 8.2 Ma, and the interval between the two major hiatuses is extremely condensed. A deeper reflector (R3) corresponds to a change from calcareous (below) to opal-rich hemipelagic strata in the lower Oligocene, not to a regional unconformity reflecting increased bottom-water activity, as previously thought. However, some evidence exists to support a latest Eo cene-earliest Oligocene increase in bottom-current activity on Gloria Drift. In Baffin Bay, there is evidence for bottom-water activity from textural studies of cores and from apparent drift fea tures exhibited in multichannel lines along the western margin. Probable contour-currents have been active since at least the late middle Miocene, with episodes of decreasing intensity that apparently occurred in the late Miocene and Quater nary. The record from Site 645 and in seismic lines may indicate that formation of bottom water occurred in the late Neogene in Baffin Bay in conjunction with climatic deterioration, but Baffin Bay was not an important source of deepwater masses to the Labrador Sea after the late Pliocene. Not surprisingly, many of the Labrador Sea deep-circulation events correspond closely to major North Atlantic events and to important global climatic and paleoceanographic events, but a major drift-building episode may have oc curred later in the Labrador Sea than it did in either the eastern North Atlantic or the western North Atlantic. t/2 w o I 3 X >< > z o X o 3 ^2 m ^ So 8° 3z w> zz HO M. A. ARTHUR ET AL.
doi:10.2973/ fatcat:nqzezxi53bgo3pieac7rj5dcjm