Discovery of Face-on Counterparts of Chain Galaxies in the Tadpole Advanced Camera for Surveys Field
The background field of the Tadpole galaxy image taken with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS contains 87 clump-clusters that are probably low-inclination versions of the 69 chain galaxies we found in a previous paper. This conclusion follows from the similarity in colors and apparent magnitudes of the brightest clumps in the clump-clusters and chain galaxies, and from the similarity between the distribution of axial ratios for the combined sample and the distribution for normal disk galaxies.
... e distributions are consistent with chains and clump-clusters being disks viewed at random angles with intrinsic axial ratios of 0.1-0.2 or less. The disks appear to be gas-rich galaxies at z=1 to 2 that are forming an early generation of stars in a small number of very large star complexes.