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AbstractMagnetic activity on cool stars expresses itself in a bewildering variety of radiative and particle output originating from magnetic regions between the photosphere and the corona. Given its origin in evolving magnetic fields, most of this output is variable in time. Radiation in the ultraviolet, the extreme ultraviolet, and the X-ray ranges are important for heating and ionizing upper planetary atmospheres and thus driving atmospheric evaporation. Additionally, stellar winds interactdoi:10.1017/s174392130999295x fatcat:vxkjswsywbektis5daqhvqu3oi