Importance of species replication in understanding plant invasions into North American grasslands [chapter]

Brian J. Wilsey
Invasive Plants: Ecological and Agricultural Aspects  
The global homogenization of the Earth's biota is expected to increase due to the increase in movement of people and goods between regions, and many introduced species are having a negative economic impact. The increase of introduced species can be thought of as a major global change, because ecosystems throughout the world are now impacted by exotics [1, 2] . Grasslands, which cover roughly 25% of the globe, contain perhaps the most disrupted and homogenized communities in the world. Native
more » ... sslands have been lost because of land conversion, and native species have been replaced or displaced with introduced grasses and legumes. Many species were intentionally introduced during the early 20th century to prevent erosion or to improve grazing, and many have undoubtedly done so. However, as management objectives for grasslands have expanded to include wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and C sequestration, it has become critical to understand how introduced species are affecting these new objectives as well. For example, Christian and Wilson [3] found that areas in Saskatchewan, Canada, dominated by the introduced forage grass Agropyron cristatum are sequestering less C into their soils compared to developing native prairie stands with similar land use histories. (2005) : 61. Posted with permission. Frenot Y, Gloaguen JC (1994) Reproductive performance of native and alien colonizing phanerogams on a glacier foreland, Iles Kerguelen. Polar Biol 14: 473-481 Glenn E, Tanner R, Mendez S, Kehret T, Moore D (1998) Growth rates, salt tolerance and water use characteristics of native and invasive riparian plants from the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico. J Arid Environ 40: 281-294 Maillet J, Lopez GC (2000) What criteria are relevant for predicting the invasive capacity of a new agricultural weed? The case of invasive American species in France. Weed Res 40:11-26 Pattison RR, Goldstein G, Ares A (1998) Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of invasive and native Hawaiian rainforest species. Oecologia 117: 449-459 Radho TS, Majer JD, Yates C (2001) Impact of fire on leaf nutrients, arthropod fauna and herbivory of native and exotic eucalypts in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Aust Ecol 26: 500-506 Smith MD, Knapp AK (2001) Physiological and morphological traits of exotic, invasive exotic, and native plant species in tallgrass prairie. Int J Pl Sci 162: 785-792 Studies that replicated native species but not exotics Black RA, Richards JH, Manwaring JH (1994) Nutrient uptake from enriched soil microsites by three great basin perennials. Ecology 75: 110-122 Cleverly JR, Smith SD, Sala A, Devitt DA (1997) Invasive capacity of Tamarix ramosissima in a Mojave Desert floodplain: The role of drought. Oecologia 111: 12-18 Horn P, Prach K (1994) Aerial biomass of Reynoutria japonica and its comparison with that of native species. Preslia 66: 345-348 Marler MJ, Zabinski CA, Wojtowicz T, Callaway RM (1999) Mycorrhizae and fine root dynamics of Centaurea maculosa and native bunchgrasses in western Montana. Northwest Sci 73: 217-224 Nagel JM, Griffin KL (2001) Construction cost and invasive potential: comparing Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae) with co-occurring native species along pond banks. Am J Bot 88: 2252-2258 Nernberg D, Dale MRT (1997) Competition of five native prairie grasses with Bromus inermus under three moisture regimes. Can J Bot 75: 2140-2145 Woo I, Zedler JB (2002) Can nutrients alone shift a sedge meadow towards dominance by the invasive Typha × glauca. Wetlands 22: 509-521 Yamashita N, Ishida A, Kushima H, Tanaka N (2000) Acclimation to sudden increase in light favoring an invasive over native trees in subtropical islands, Japan. Oecologia 125: 412-419 Studies that replicated exotic species but not natives Fan J, Harris W (1996) Effects of soil fertility level and cutting frequency on interference among Hieracium pilosella, H. praealtum, Rumex acetosella, and Festuca novae-zelandiae. New Zealand J Agric Res 39: 1-32 McDowell CR, Moll EJ (1981) Studies of seed germination and seedling competition in Virgilia oroboides (Berg.) Salter, Albizia lophantha (Willd.) Benth. and Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. J South Afr Bot 47: 653-685 Virgona JM, Bowcher A (2000) Effects of grazing interval on basal cover of four perennial grasses in a summer-dry environment. Aust J Exp Agric 40: 299-311 (Conrtinued on next page) Disciplines Biodiversity | Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Comments This chapter is from Invasive Plants: Ecological and Agricultural Aspects
doi:10.1007/3-7643-7380-6_4 fatcat:jvmaagx5p5bshdm3jaq2bmvrdi