IoT-Enabled Smart Wearable Devices: A Short Review
International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology
Smart wearables are changing the way we monitor human activities and behaviour as they provide hands-free access to technology. They are undoubtedly making our life easier by providing wide array of applications in daily lives. These devices are an indispensable part of the Internet of things (IoT). This paper discusses the latest trends and innovations of IoT-enabled smart wearable devices. It also addresses user requirements of wearable technology. The basic components of smart wearables
... st of sensors, microcontrollers, cloud platforms, User Interface (UI), connectivity and gateway. In the literature study section, we have given a summary of the innovative papers that are divided into three major domains of wearable technology i.e. i) safety and tracking, ii) medical, and iii) sports and fitness. Further various limitations and challenges of wearable sensor devices are also discussed. This paper is useful to get an in-depth explanation about smart wearables and to know hardware and software components required to design wearable devices that are listed in the final summary table. 2127 ©IJRASET: All Rights are Reserved Ushashi Chowdhury et al. (2019) have discussed about a smart wearable device like a wristband which tracks the child from time to time to ensure their safety. It has the SMS text enabled communication. Parents can send SMS with some keywords and the device replies. The system is capable of detecting the child's approximate location, identify the body and the surrounding temperature, humidity and heartbeat of the child. In case of an emergency, the device has alarm buzzer and SOS light that alerts the by-standers about the situation and to help the child  . B. Medical In healthcare domain, the basic requirement of the user is having a track of the vital information of the body parameters. For such reason he/she can use IoT-enabled wearable device that can show body temperature, pulse rate, anxiety, ECG-variations, and many other parameters. Below are some of the recent innovations that are focused on smart health wearables which are helpful for both the humans as well as animals Chaitali Kulkarni et al. (2016) have introduced health companion system which can monitor health regularly. The wearable device consists of temperature and pulse rate sensor to keep a regular track of health variations. The system also keeps track of the user's location as well as the date and time. GPS service is used to track location and GSM for sending message to user. When the user's temperature or heart rate reaches the stated threshold, the app may alert the user of the location to the nearest hospitals. Free cloud service called data Sparkfun which is provided by an open cloud server called Phant is used. Phant is a Node.js application. The system also includes daily and monthly report generation for the user and doctor, respectively  . Niket Patil et al. (2017) have presented a system which can monitor the health and track the location of soldiers wirelessly. The device can be placed on the back of soldiers that has several sensors such as temperature sensor, pulse rate sensor, oxygen level detector, GPS receivers, etc. All the data from the sensor is transmitted to the cloud by Wi-Fi module. The person in the control room thus can access this information and in emergency, the soldiers can be protected quickly  . Joohee Kim et al. (2017) have demonstrated a wearable smart contact lens with highly transparent and stretchable sensors that continuously and wirelessly monitors glucose and intraocular pressure from tear fluid, which are the risk factors associated with diabetes and glaucoma, respectively. The main components used in the sensors are graphene and its metal nanowire combination, which offers transparency greater than 91% and stretchability equalivalent to 25% to ensure reliability, comfort and unobstructed vision. This contact lens sensor shows a big potential for next-generation ocular diagnostics, which not only tracks disease-related biomarkers, but also measures the overall health and ocular conditions of our body.  Mr. V Gokul et al. (2017) have introduced an application of IoT wearables for monitoring cattle health. It implements a noninvasive wearable device to track the health of the cattle and to not allow the spread of diseases in the herd. The wearable tool is designed for early disease detection, irregularities identification, emergency management, location tracking, calving time intimation and disease detection before visual signs. The sensors used are LDR, Infra-red sensor, LM35, humidity sensor and smoke sensor. To allow remote access, all sensor readings will be forwarded to ThingSpeak cloud. The data is analysed and an inspection on health and milk production of the cattle is carried out  . Rashi Kansara et al. (2018) have proposed a device which can monitor various health parameters like body temperature, step count, heart rate and sugar level. For software module, the collected data from sensors is displayed on smart phone application. All the sensors are connected to microcontroller Arduino. Main components of the smart fabric are sensors, microcontroller, wireless communication module, battery, end-device, and user. The device needs to be then connected to the smart phone using wireless communication . Md Shaad Mahmud et al. (2018) have presented a novel, compact and low-cost wearable ring sensor (SensoRing) for the continuous measurement Electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate, skin temperature and locomotion, which gives the ability to measure one's emotional state using wearable biosensors. The SensoRing consists of three major components: 1) Hardware design, where the sensors collected the physiological data; 2)Wireless network protocol for communication between hardware and software; and 3) Computer architecture that involves a processing unit for the extraction and analysis of data at a reasonable level.Utilizing finger as a tracking site for several biosignals, at the same time miniaturization of the complete system, as well as the architecture of the proposed system that allows for a discreet evaluation of physiological biomarkers, makes it a good candidate for remote health monitoring  . Quang Huy Nguyen et al. (2019) have proposed an architecture for real-time tracking of patients and hospital staff. The system uses Bluetooth Low Power (BLE) and iBeacons for real-time tracking of patients. It has four frameworks i.e. server communication, user interaction, cross-platform communication, and indoor localization. The data is analysed by Least Square Estimation approach which gives the accurate location of the patients inside the hospital. The system has a resolution of 12cms  .