### FPT Approximation for Constrained Metric k-Median/Means [article]

Dishant Goyal, Ragesh Jaiswal, Amit Kumar
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The Metric k-median problem over a metric space (X, d) is defined as follows: given a set L ⊆X of facility locations and a set C ⊆X of clients, open a set F ⊆ L of k facilities such that the total service cost, defined as Φ(F, C) ≡∑_x ∈ Cmin_f ∈ F d(x, f), is minimised. The metric k-means problem is defined similarly using squared distances. In many applications there are additional constraints that any solution needs to satisfy. This gives rise to different constrained versions of the problem
more » ... uch as r-gather, fault-tolerant, outlier k-means/k-median problem. Surprisingly, for many of these constrained problems, no constant-approximation algorithm is known. We give FPT algorithms with constant approximation guarantee for a range of constrained k-median/means problems. For some of the constrained problems, ours is the first constant factor approximation algorithm whereas for others, we improve or match the approximation guarantee of previous works. We work within the unified framework of Ding and Xu that allows us to simultaneously obtain algorithms for a range of constrained problems. In particular, we obtain a (3+ε)-approximation and (9+ε)-approximation for the constrained versions of the k-median and k-means problem respectively in FPT time. In many practical settings of the k-median/means problem, one is allowed to open a facility at any client location, i.e., C ⊆ L. For this special case, our algorithm gives a (2+ε)-approximation and (4+ε)-approximation for the constrained versions of k-median and k-means problem respectively in FPT time. Since our algorithm is based on simple sampling technique, it can also be converted to a constant-pass log-space streaming algorithm.