Dynactin has two antagonistic regulatory domains and exerts opposing effects on dynein motility [article]

Takuya Kobayashi, Takuya Miyashita, Takashi Murayama, Yoko Y. Toyoshima
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
Dynactin is a dynein-regulating protein that increases the processivity of dynein movement on microtubules. Recent studies have shown that a tripartite complex of dynein-dynactin-Bicaudal D2 is essential for highly processive movement. To elucidate the regulation of dynein motility by dynactin, we focused on two isoforms (A and B) of dynactin 1 (DCTN1), the largest subunit of dynactin that contains both microtubule- and dynein-binding domains. The only difference between the primary structures
more » ... f the two isoforms is that DCTN1B lacks the K-rich domain, a cluster of basic residues. We measured dynein motility by single molecule observation of recombinant dynein and dynactin. Whereas the tripartite complex containing DCTN1A exhibited highly processive movement, the complex containing DCTN1B dissociated from microtubules with no apparent processive movement. This inhibitory effect of DCTN1B was caused by reductions of the microtubule-binding affinities of both dynein and dynactin, which is attributed to the coiled-coil 1 domain of DCTN1. In DCTN1A, the K-rich domain antagonized these inhibitory effects. Therefore, dynactin has two antagonistic domains and promotes or suppresses dynein motility to accomplish correct localization and functions of dynein within a cell.
doi:10.1101/110775 fatcat:fubio5xerjbennvo74fm3gm4zm