The sugarcane mitochondrial genome: assembly, phylogenetics and transcriptomics
Chloroplast genomes provide insufficient phylogenetic information to distinguish between closely related sugarcane cultivars, due to the recent origin of many cultivars and the conserved sequence of the chloroplast. In comparison, the mitochondrial genome of plants is much larger and more plastic and could contain increased phylogenetic signals. We assembled a consensus reference mitochondrion with Illumina TruSeq synthetic long reads and Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION long reads. Based on
... this assembly we also analyzed the mitochondrial transcriptomes of sugarcane and sorghum and improved the annotation of the sugarcane mitochondrion as compared with other species. Methods Mitochondrial genomes were assembled from genomic read pools using a bait and assemble methodology. The mitogenome was exhaustively annotated using BLAST and transcript datasets were mapped with HISAT2 prior to analysis with the Integrated Genome Viewer. Results The sugarcane mitochondrion is comprised of two independent chromosomes, for which there is no evidence of recombination. Based on the reference assembly from the sugarcane cultivar SP80-3280 the mitogenomes of four additional cultivars (R570, LCP85-384, RB72343 and SP70-1143) were assembled (with the SP70-1143 assembly utilizing both genomic and transcriptomic data). We demonstrate that the sugarcane plastome is completely transcribed and we assembled the chloroplast genome of SP80-3280 using transcriptomic data only. Phylogenomic analysis using mitogenomes allow closely related sugarcane cultivars to be distinguished and supports the discrimination between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum cultum as modern sugarcane's female parent. From whole chloroplast comparisons, we demonstrate that modern sugarcane arose from a limited number of Saccharum cultum female founders. Transcriptomic and spliceosomal analyses reveal that the two chromosomes of the sugarcane mitochondrion are combined at the transcript level and that splice sites occur more frequently within gene coding regions than without. We reveal one confirmed and one potential cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) factor in the sugarcane mitochondrion, both of which are transcribed. Conclusion Transcript processing in the sugarcane mitochondrion is highly complex with diverse splice events, the majority of which span the two chromosomes. PolyA baited transcripts are consistent with the use of polyadenylation for transcript degradation. For the first time we annotate two CMS factors within the sugarcane mitochondrion and demonstrate that sugarcane possesses all the molecular machinery required for CMS and rescue. A mechanism of cross-chromosomal splicing based on guide RNAs is proposed. We also demonstrate that mitogenomes can be used to perform phylogenomic studies on sugarcane cultivars.