1901 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  
The ordinary Kelly pad, when used for abdominal operations, allows all the solutions used in the final preparation of the abdomen to flow under the patient's back, thus keeping it in a chemical bath during the entire operation. If the Trendelenburg position is used the pad will probably overflow and the solutions will gravitate toward the patient's neck. If irriga¬ tion is necessary, part of the irrigating material will flow on the side which has no apron, and wet the table and floor. These
more » ... nd floor. These conditions may appear of trifling importance, but those in whose charge the patient is placed after the performance of the operation will hail with delight any device which will avoid these inconveniences. I have devised a pad which consists essentially of two Kelly pads joined back to back. The pad when in position has an apron hanging down on each side of the table. The patient's spine is in contact with the center cushion, which holds the back up from the table, and keeps it from contact with any fluids which may be in the pad.. I have further arranged the operating-table so that the center is slightly higher than the sides, thus allowing all fluids to run outward instead of under the patient, leaving the pad dry at the completion of the operation. Miscellany. Viability of the Plague Bacillus.-In his "Preliminary Note on the Viability of the Plague Bacillus," published as a bulletin of the Hygienic Laboratory of the Marine-Hospital service P.A. Surgeon M. J. Rosenau gave the result of his obser¬ vations on the viability of the plague bacillus on various fabrics and substances and under varying conditions of tem¬ perature and exposure to light, presence of moisture, etc. He arrived at the conclusion that the prolonged existence of the organism was dependent upon the presence of moisture, more than upon any other one factor. He showed, for instance, that at room temperature (20 to 27 C. ) the organism lived in the presence of moisture for 60 days on crash, linen, woolen or silk fabrics; that it lived 96 days in distilled water; 97 days in ordinary tap water, and for the remarkable period of 125 days upon bone dust, where the presence of moisture was as¬ sured by wetting the substance with bouillon, and carefully stoppering the container to prevent evaporation. Since the time of publication of the preliminary note, the experiments have been continued in the laboratory for a period of over a year, and have only recently been concluded. Certain food stuffs were experimented on, but the fact developed that sym¬ biosis with saprophytic organisms was prejudicial to the pro¬ longed life of "the bacillus, and that the substances must be subjected to a preliminary sterilization, in order to favor the growth of the plague bacillus. On cheese thus prepared, it lived for 13 to 17 days; on sterilized rice for only 3 days; on dried salt beef, 3 days ; on orange peel there was no growth : there was no growth on dried figs and raisins, though this aws subsequently proved to be due to the amount of grape or fruit sugar contained. In manj' of the cases of prolonged survival, however, the virulence of the organism was lost at a comparatively early period, 62 days being the longest period after which the organism was fatal to mice. Rosenau also quotes Yokote, of Tokio, as to the effect of the presence of organisms of decomposition on the existence of plague, show¬ ing in the case of the bodies of mice dead of plague that the higher the temperature, the more the decomposition and the greater the number of saprophytes, and that with lower tem¬ peratures the reverse obtained. . Prizes Offered by the Paris Académie de Médecine.-
doi:10.1001/jama.1901.02470030055027 fatcat:4of5ryhw6zbcvifjf7rt5yvgka