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Virulence of Yersinia pestis in mammals requires the type III secretion system, which delivers seven effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells to undermine immune responses. All seven of these effectors are conserved across Y. pestis strains, but three, YopJ, YopT, and YpkA, are apparently dispensable for virulence. Some degree of functional redundancy between effector proteins would explain both observations. Here, we use a combinatorial genetic approach to define the minimal subsetdoi:10.1128/iai.00318-18 pmid:29891548 fatcat:ykpc7473ffcnzd6qav6c5kg52q