Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

T. T. Efremova, A. F. Avrova, S. P. Efremov
2015 Sibirskij Lesnoj Žurnal  
For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss)-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm) with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha), which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified,
more » ... re identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes) to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus)-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals' humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus)-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus)-peaty, reduced (black mold humus)-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively characterizes the uniqueness of moss litter types, their horizons and fermen [...]
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