Role of Group II Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Atherosclerosis : 2. Potential Involvement of Biologically Active Oxidized Phospholipids

N. Leitinger, A. D. Watson, S. Y. Hama, B. Ivandic, J.-H. Qiao, J. Huber, K. F. Faull, D. S. Grass, M. Navab, A. M. Fogelman, F. C. de Beer, A. J. Lusis (+1 others)
1999 Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology  
Secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase A 2 (group II sPLA 2 ) is induced in inflammation and present in atherosclerotic lesions. In an accompanying publication we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing group II sPLA 2 developed severe atherosclerosis. The current study was undertaken to determine whether 1 mechanism by which group II sPLA 2 might contribute to the progression of inflammation and atherosclerosis is by increasing the formation of biologically active oxidized phospholipids. In
more » ... vivo measurements of bioactive lipids were performed, and in vitro studies tested the hypothesis that sPLA 2 can increase the accumulation of bioactive phospholipids. We have shown previously that 3 oxidized phospholipids derived from the oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (PAPC) stimulated endothelial cells to bind monocytes, a process that is known to be an important step in atherogenesis. We now show that these 3 biologically active phospholipids are significantly increased in livers of sPLA 2 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet as compared with nontransgenic littermates. We present in vitro evidence for several mechanisms by which these phospholipids may be increased in sPLA 2 transgenics. These studies demonstrated that polyunsaturated free fatty acids, which are liberated by sPLA 2 , increased the formation of bioactive phospholipids in LDL, resulting in increased ability to stimulate monocyte-endothelial interactions. Moreover, sPLA 2 -treated LDL was oxidized by cocultures of human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells more efficiently than untreated LDL. Analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed that the bioactive phospholipids, compared with unoxidized PAPC, were less susceptible to hydrolysis by human recombinant group II sPLA 2 . In addition, HDL from the transgenic mice and human HDL treated with recombinant sPLA 2 in vitro failed, in the coculture system, to protect against the formation of biologically active phospholipids in LDL. This lack of protection may in part relate to the decreased levels of paraoxonase seen in the HDL isolated from the transgenic animals. Taken together, these studies show that levels of biologically active oxidized phospholipids are increased in sPLA 2 transgenic mice; they also suggest that this increase may be mediated by effects of sPLA 2 on both LDL and HDL. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:1291-1298.)
doi:10.1161/01.atv.19.5.1291 pmid:10323782 fatcat:zimhctfaubb7ron6ui4vuasmya