BOOK REVIEWS

1917 The Muslim world  
Press, 1917. l2/6 net. 456 pages. Although the Ottomans commenced their invasion of Europe more than a century before the taking of Constantinople, responsible historians show a tendency to make that event the starting-point of the "Eastern Question," Le:, the question how the Turks are to be dispossessed of the territories which they have appropriated, and who is to be installed in their place. For a time there was some chance of the question being settled by the absorption of all Europe in
more » ... of all Europe in the Ottoman Empire; but that danger disappeared iis the seventeenth century reached its close, and since the beginning of the nineteenth the solution of the question has been advancing by leaps and bounds. Nor have we abandoned the hope that the termination of the present war will include the final settlement of the problem. Mr. Marriott, who is well known as a historian and a publicist, traces the history of the question to its commencement, and owing to his vast knowledge of modern Europe and its affairs, and his great skill as a writer, has produced a most interesting book, which few readers will leave unfinished. It is natural that he should enter more fully into detail the nearer he approaches our time; two-thirds of his space is occupied with the period which commences with Napoleon's activities; one-half with that which commences with the Crimean War. One would gladly have his opinion about that war, which so great a master of foreign politics as the late Lord Salisbury declared to have been so far as Great Britain was concerned a mistake; "England put her money on the wrong horse." Mr. Marriott does not contravene that judgment, but attacks Kinglake for maintaining that the British Cabinet were hoodwinked by Napoleon 111. Nevertheless he appears to accept the view that Napoleon 111's motives for goipg to war with Russia were personal and dynastic; if then the action of the British government of the time in supporting him has not been justified by the event, they must have been deceived by some persons or some thing. The impression left on the mind by this study in European diplomacy is not favourable to the ability of those who have been actively engaged therein. The Berlin Congress of 1878 was the crown of Lord Beaconfield's career as a statesman; his personality, says Mr. Marriott, dominated the Congress, and he won the whole-hearted admiration of Bismarck. Yet his Anglo-Turkish Convention, concluded just before the Congress, was described by Mr. Gladstone as an insane convention; and though this phrase produced a violent retort, a convention which permanently alienated the parties to it, and appears otherwise to have produced little good, was perhaps not entirely unworthy of the epithet. The Treaty of Berlin which was the result of the labours of that Congress, has according to Mr. Marriott's showing been the cause of evils avoided by the Treaty of zu
doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1917.tb01577.x fatcat:isjxo7dtarbjlfjxouagf3ui2i