Characterizing and modeling the Upper Jurassic Arab-D reservoir using outcrop data from Central Saudi Arabia
Outcrop analogs are used to improve the characterization of reservoir stratigraphy, to understand subsurface facies architecture and heterogeneity, and to overcome the limitations associated with large inter-well spacing within individual oil fields. This study characterized and modeled outcropping strata equivalent to the Upper Jurassic Arab-D carbonate reservoir in Central Saudi Arabia. The study presents qualitative and quantitative sedimentological and petrographic descriptions of
... s associations and interprets them within a high-order stratigraphic framework using geostatistical modeling, spectral gamma-ray, geochemistry, petrography and micropaleontology. The sedimentological studies revealed three lithofacies associations, which are interpreted as a gentle slope platform depositional environment comprising nine high-frequency sequences. The biocomponents of the study area show a lower degree of diversity than the subsurface Arab-D reservoir; however, some key biofacies are present and provide indications of the nature of the paleoenvironments. The geochemical results show a strong correlation between the major and trace elements and the reservoir facies, and suggest that the concentrations of elements and their corresponding spectral gamma-ray logs follow the same general upward-shoaling pattern. The 3-D geocellular model captures small-scale reservoir variability, which is reflected in the petrophysical data distribution in the model. This investigation increases the understanding of the stratigraphy of the Arab-D reservoir and provides a general framework for zonation, layering, and lateral stratigraphic correlations.