Pressure support ventilation improves oxygenation by redistribution of pulmonary blood flow in experimental lung injury
all 10 cities including the rural areas of the province of Kerman. All data were finally analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5). Results On the basis of recorded statistical analysis, the mortality cases of human rabies in the province of Kerman during one decade was 10 persons (eight males and two females). One-half of them (50%) were bitten by dogs and the others (50%) by foxes. Among the reported deaths, 40% were from Kahnooj county (Jiroft region). The reported data indicated that 21,546
... ersons were bitten by animals during 10 years in the province of Kerman. The mean of age of the people who were bitten by dogs was 24.80 years (SD = ±14.6), while the mean age of the people who were bitten by foxes was 57.25 years (SD = ±1.50). There was a significant difference between the mean age of these two groups of the people (P < 0.05). The most frequent rate of injured people was reported in the age group 10-19 years old and the frequency rate of males (76.00%) was more than females (24.00%). Therefore, there was a statistically significant difference between males and females in this study (P < 0.01). About 60% of all persons that were bitten by animals were from rural areas and 40% of them were from urban areas (P < 0.05). Among the people who were bitten and injured by animals during one decade in the province of Kerman, 85.70% of them were not treated by the rabies prophylaxis treatment regimen. Among all of them who were bitten by animals, 50% were injured through hands and feet, 40% Introduction We set out to assess current understanding of MRSA among the lay public prior to writing an information booklet for relatives of patients in the ICU. Methods Trained researchers approached potential participants in the hospital entrance and public places to complete the questionnaire. Result Of 545 participants who completed the questionnaire, 24 had never heard of MRSA and 521 remained (176 visitors, 345 general public); 4.9% (n = 26) had previously contracted MRSA. The median age was 37 (21-49) years. The cohort first heard of MRSA 24 (±18) months previously. The most common sources of information were television and newspapers. Participants who had MRSA thought that the shortage of beds contributed to MRSA S2 Emergency Medicine transmission (84% vs 69%). 46.3% of the public versus 16% of the MRSA group did not expect to acquire MRSA after routine surgery (P = 0.0095). Most participants (65.3% of the public, 70% of visitors and 52% of the MRSA group) thought MRSA was serious. Ninety-two percent of the MRSA group worried about transmission to family members. 3.6% of the cohort would not know where to find more information. Conclusions MRSA is considered serious, information is obtained through the media, and most participants can obtain further information. Introduction The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of ICU-acquired infection on ICU and hospital mortality. The main determinants of hospital infection onset were investigated and the role of the most used antibiotics in the ICU was considered a risk factor for selection of peculiar bacterial species responsible for ICU pneumonia. Methods Patients with a longer than 48 hour stay in a teaching hospital ICU were retrospectively enrolled between January 2005 and December 2006. Risk factors for ICU and hospital mortality were analyzed with a logistic regression model adjusted for age, SAPS II, medical or surgical status of the patients. Univariate analysis permitted one to verify the relation between previous exposition to an antibiotic therapy and development of ICU pneumonia. Results Of 343 patients enrolled, 39 had a diagnosis for ICU infection: 18 had an infection on admission developing a second infection during ICU stay, and 21 had a primary infection after ICU admission. Among the patients with ICU-acquired infection, ICU mortality and hospital mortality were more than doubled (OR = 2.51 (95% CI = 1.05-5.98) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI = 1.10-4.86), respectively). Having more than one infection demonstrated an ICU mortality risk addiction more than tripled (OR = 3.36 (95% CI = 1.06-10.61)). Admission severity and an infection before ICU admission emerged as important risk factors for ICU-acquired infections (OR = 5.71 (95% CI = 1.19-27.29) and OR = 3.14 (95% CI = 1.42-6.97), respectively). Previous fluoroquinolone use demonstrated a clear role in favouring Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and linezolid in Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia (Table 1) . Conclusions ICU-acquired infections are an independent risk factor for ICU and hospital mortality. Finally some antibiotic categories might show up as pneumonia inductors but further studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis. Reference 1. Aloush V, Navon-Venezia S: Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006, 1:43-48. Linezolid RR = 0.38 RR = 6.21 RR = 1.38 (0.06-2.45) (1.27-30.40) (0.17-11.36) RR, relative risk (95% confidence interval).