Clinicopathological Features and Status of Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Expression in Lung Cancer: A Single Centre Study From North India
Introduction Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an immunological checkpoint that supports the inhibition of the anti-tumor immune system. A higher level of PD-L1 expression was also discovered on the cell surfaces of several cancer cells, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Identifying individuals who would benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 antibody immunotherapy is crucial in the era of precision medicine. The study's objective was to assess the distribution and degree of PD-L1 ligand
... ession in various forms of lung cancer and examine its link to clinicopathological variables. Methods This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was done in a tertiary care hospital in North India over 2 years from 2019 to 2021. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with lung cancer through either endobronchial or image-guided biopsies were enrolled. The biopsy specimens of lung cancer patients have been subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. PD-L1 expression was positive when at least 1% of tumor cells were stained. In our study, we used the rabbit monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 antibody (CAL10) (ab237726) (Abcam Plc, UK). Results Of the 100 patients, Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) was the predominant histological pattern. The mean age of the study group was 57.26 ± 10.53 years. High PDL-1 positivity (>50% ) is seen in a total of 10 patients, while low PD-L1 positivity (1-50%) is seen in 24 patients. Of all patients with high PD-L1 positivity (n=10), 80% had stage IV at the time of diagnosis. However, on similar lines, 71 % of patients with low PD-L1 positivity presented with stage IV at the time of diagnosis. (p value=0.09). Among 10 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive status, high PD-L1 positivity is seen in 20%. Among 3 patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive status, only one patient showed high PD-L1 positivity, whereas negative PDL-1 was seen in 2 patients, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion The management of lung cancer is driven by precision medicine, including PDL-1 expression, which correlates with immune checkpoint inhibitor response. In our cohort, PD-L1 expression appears to be mostly linked to the squamous cell subtype of lung cancer, with elevated tumor stage and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in Kashmiri people. Other oncogenic driver mutations are not connected to PD-L1 expression. The function of PD-L1 expression in lung tumors requires more study.