Time and Equilibrium: 2 Important, But Invisible, Concepts of Economics, with Application to Shipping Industry

Alexandros M. Goulielmos
2018 Modern Economy  
As the World built, time established. Economists, however, put the "time" in the "ceteris paribus" basket, i.e. outside demand, supply and price. Moreover, Newton was mistaken in assuming that time flows independently. We saw that since the establishment of analysis, one science borrowed from the other, and economics borrowed from Physics: equilibrium, continuity-where nature does not make leaps-as well as Adam Smith's invisible hand; in addition, management borrowed negative feedback from
more » ... nical engineering; Newton, unwillingly, however, made harm to management by giving ground to managers to consider "humans as machines". A whole array of theories and concepts-mentioned-followed from this. But our research passed from surprise to surprise: time in finance has 3 types: clock, trading (investors) and fractal (fractions). Given the difficult concept of "fractality", we gave a mathematical and a simple geometrical exposition. Moreover, time... in time series is distinguished in further 3 types: random (white noise), persistent (black noise) and antipersistent (pink noise). So far 8 types of time... Einstein added another one: time as the 4 th dimension of the Universe... Mathematics in its role in presenting reality-par excellence expressed by "Marginalism" in 1870 in economics-and by using the 1938 "logistic equation" (re-discovered in 1971)-we saw what a "control coefficient" changing in time can achieve by leading the system from stability to chaos. Equilibrium is only a special case
doi:10.4236/me.2018.93035 fatcat:g5tvvzqb5bbjbmbv2vmff5txmy