NOVAL TRAITS FOR IDENTIFYING AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS L. USING SYSTEMATIC AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
Arya. S., RajeshKumar. T.
International Journal of Advanced Research
Amaranthus spinosus is commonly known as spiny amaranth and is distributed all around the Asian continent as an annual weed. Though it is seen as a weed the nutritive quality of the species is high. This paper attempts to explain the various biochemical composition of the plant qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative analysis carried out suggests the better solvent which could be used for its effective extraction. This paper also puts lights into the taxonomical traits and anatomical
... cters of the species. Copy Right, IJAR, 2016,. All rights reserved. ...................................................................................................................... Introduction:- The genus Amaranthus, a widely cultivated taxonomic group, consists about 60-70 species 1 . Collectively known as Amaranth, it is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs belonging to the family Amaranthaceae 2 . Most of amaranth species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pig weed 3 . A rich array of poems and folklore has hints about the flower of amaranth which does not fade easily. Its etymology as well, has traces to its everlasting flower, with the word Amaranth, coming from the Greek word Amaranthon, which means "one that does not wither 4 . Throughout history, Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) has been highly priced as a consumable. The Incas, Mayans and Aztecs used it as a staple food 5 . Amaranthus spinosus L. is an erect, monoecious, perennial, up to 1 m, stems is terete or obtusely angular, glabrous or slightly pubescent, green, reddish-brown, glabrous, and branched. The leaves of A.spinosus are alternate and simple without stipules; petiole is approximately as long as the leaf blade. The blade shape is ovate-lanceolate to rhomboid, acute and often slightly decurrent at base, obtuse, rounded and often short mucronate at apex, entire, glabrous or slightly pubescent on veins when young 6 . The inflorencence of the species possess terminal and axillary spike, which are, erect, slender and elongated, with remote axillary spikes at base, present in lower clusters 7 . The anatomy of A.spinosus shows the presence of vascular bundles in the pith, known as medullary bundles, in addition to the normal ring of vascular bundles 8 . The presence of medullary bundles has been reported as an "anomaly", which according to Esau is "a growth pattern which occur less common 9 . The nutritional composition of spiny Amaranthus is carotene (11.94), Vitamin C (43 mg), calcium (374 mg), carbohydrates (5.0g), protein (5.3g), fat (0.1g) 100g of the edible portion 10 . Materials and Methods:-Taxonomical studies:- The fresh plant within one week of flowering was collected. It was identified and was subjected to taxonomical identification of different characters. The plants were worked out with the help of The Flora of The Presidency of Madras (Gamble) Volume 2.The characters and variations were noted. The herbariums of the plant species were also prepared.