David Ross Emerson
Depth estimation is increasingly becoming more important in computer vision. The requirement for autonomous systems to gauge their surroundings is of the utmost importance in order to avoid obstacles, preventing damage to itself and/or other systems or people. Depth measuring/estimation systems that use multiple cameras from multiple views can be expensive and extremely complex. And as these autonomous systems decrease in size and available power, the supporting sensors required to estimate
more » ... red to estimate depth must also shrink in size and power consumption.This research will concentrate on a single passive method known as Depth from Defocus (DfD), which uses an in-focus and out-of-focus image to infer the depth of objects in a scene. The major contribution of this research is the introduction of a new Deep Learning (DL) architecture to process the the in-focus and out-of-focus images to produce a depth map for the scene improving both speed and performance over a range of lighting conditions. Compared to the previous state-of-the-art multi-label graph cuts algorithms applied to the synthetically blurred dataset the DfD-Net produced a 34.30\% improvement in the average Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE). Similarly the DfD-Net architecture produced a 76.69\% improvement in the average Normalized Mean Absolute Error (NMAE). Only the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) had a small average decrease of 2.68\% when compared to the graph cuts algorithm. This slight reduction in the SSIM value is a result of the SSIM metric penalizing images that appear to be noisy. In some instances the DfD-Net output is mottled, which is interpreted as noise by the SSIM metric. This research introduces two methods of deep learning architecture optimization. The first method employs the use of a variant of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to improve the performance of the DfD-Net architecture. The PSO algorithm was able to find a combination of the number of convolutional filters, the size of the filters, the activation la [...]
doi:10.25394/pgs.8938376 fatcat:3fdfk7ckzze6pk4t3cdalhad2a