Evaluating two aspects of direct manipulation in advanced cockpits

James A. Ballas, Constance L. Heitmeyer, Manuel A. Pérez
1992 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '92  
Increasing use of automation in computer systems, such as advanced cockpits, presents special challenges in the design of user interfaces. The challenge is particularly difficult when automation is intermittent because the interface must support smooth transitions from automated to manual mode. A theory of direct manipulation predicts that this interface style will smooth the transition. Interfaces were designed to test the prediction and to evaluate two aspects of direet manipulation, semantic
more » ... distance and engagement. Empirical results supported the theoretical prediction and also showed that direet engagement can have some adverse effeets on another concurrent manual task. Generalizations of our results to other complex systems are presented.
doi:10.1145/142750.142770 dblp:conf/chi/BallasHP92 fatcat:z6azrru3nvbodjoelrnctl54vy