Protective effects of apocynin and melatonin on ovarian ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
Objective: This study aims to determine the protective e fects of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and melatonin, an endogenous anti-oxidant, in an animal model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Materials/Methods: Thirty-five female rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely group I (sham), group II (I/R), group III (I/R + 10 mg/kg apocynin), group IV (I/R + 20 mg/kg apocynin), and group V (I/R + 10 mg/kg melatonin). Ovarian tissue and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD)
... e dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were measured. Ovarian histopathology was examined and Bax, caspase 3, and iNOS immunoreactivities were evaluated. Results: Preoperative apocynin and melatonin significantly increased SOD and CAT activities (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively, for both apocynin and melatonin). In addition, preoperative apocynin and melatonin significantly decreased the ovarian I/R injury score (P < 0.01 for both). Bax, caspase 3, and iNOS immunoreactivities were significantly lower in the I/R + 10 mg/kg apocynin and I/R + 10 mg/kg melatonin groups than in the I/R group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Apocynin and melatonin are powerful antioxidant agents with considerable bioavailability and safety. Preoperative apocynin and melatonin administration might protect ovarian tissue from I/R injury a ter surgical adnexal detorsion.