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JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF CONTINUA AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
Farooq Sk. "Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 Journal > Journal > Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 > Page 6 PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF GASOLINE-ETHANOL BLENDS ON PFI-SI ENGINE Authors: D.Vinay Kumar ,G.Samhita Priyadarsini,V.Jagadeesh Babu,Y.Sai Varun Teja, DOI NO: https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.07.00051 admin July 26, 2020 Abstract: Alcohol based fuels can be produced from renewable energy sources and has the potential to reduce pollutant emissions due to their oxygenated nature. Lighter alcohols like ethanol and methanol are easily miscible with gasoline and by blending alcohols with gasoline; a part of conventional fuel can be replaced while contributing to fuel economy. Several researchers tested various ethanol blends on different engine test rigs and identified ethanol as one of the most promising ecofriendly fuels for spark ignition engine. Its properties high octane number, high latent heat of vaporization give better performance characteristics and reduces exhaust emissions compared to gasoline. This paper focuses on studying the effects of blending 50 of ethanol by volume with gasoline as it hardly needs engine modifications. Gasoline (E0) and E50 fuels were investigated experimentally on single-cylinder, four-stroke port fuel injection spark ignition engine by varying engine speed from 1500 rpm to 3500 rpm. Performance Characteristics like torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption, and volumetric efficiency and exhaust emissions such as HC, CO, CO2, NOx were studied.. Keywords: Ethanol,Emissions,Gasoline,Port fuel Injection, Refference: I Badrawada, I. G. G., and A. A. P. Susastriawan. "Influence of ethanol–gasoline blend on performance and emission of four-stroke spark ignition motorcycle." Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (2019): 1-6. II Doğan, Battal, et al. "The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis." Applied Thermal Engineering 120 (2017): 433-443. III Efemwenkiekie, U. Ka, et al. "Comparative Analysis of a Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine Performance Using Local Ethanol and Gasoline Blends." Procedia Manufacturing 35 (2019): 1079-1086. IV Galloni, E., F. Scala, and G. Fontana. "Influence of fuel bio-alcohol content on the performance of a turbo-charged, PFI, spark-ignition engine." Energy 170 (2019): 85-92. V Hasan, Ahmad O., et al. "Impact of changing combustion chamber geometry on emissions, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder SI (spark ignition) engine fueled with ethanol/gasoline blends." Fuel 231 (2018): 197-203. VI Mourad, M., and K. Mahmoud. "Investigation into SI engine performance characteristics and emissions fuelled with ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends." Renewable Energy 143 (2019): 762-771. VII Singh, Ripudaman, et al. "Influence of fuel injection strategies on efficiency and particulate emissions of gasoline and ethanol blends in a turbocharged multi-cylinder direct injection engine." International Journal of Engine Research (2019): 1468087419838393. VIII Thakur, Amit Kumar, et al. "Progress in performance analysis of ethanol-gasoline blends on SI engine." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 69 (2017): 324-340. View Download Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS FOR CUSTOMIZED AFO USING ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Authors: Gamini Suresh,Nagarjuna Maguluri,Kunchala Balakrishna, DOI NO: https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.07.00052 admin July 26, 2020 Abstract: Neurodegenerative conditions and compressed nerves often cause an abnormal foot drop that affects an individual gait and make it difficult to walk normally. Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) is the medical device which is recommended for the patients to improve the walking ability and decrease the risk of falls. Custom AFOs provide better fit, comfort and performance than pre-manufactured ones. The technique of 3D-printing is suitable for making custom AFOs. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a 3D-printing method for custom AFO applications with the desired resistance and material deposition rate. Generally, FDM is a thermal process; therefore materials thermal behaviour plays an important role in optimizing the performance of the printed parts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermal behaviour of PLA, ABS, nylon and WF-PLA filaments before manufacturing the AFO components using the FDM method. In the study, the sequence of testing materials provides a basic measuring method to investigate AFO device parts thermal stability. Thermal analysis (TG/DTG and DSC) was carried out before 3D printing is to characterize the thermal stability of each material. Keywords: Additive Manufacturing,Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO),FusedDeposition Modelling,ThermalAnalysis, Refference: I. J. Pritchett, "Foot drop: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology," Medscape Drugs, Dis. Proced., vol. 350, no. apr27_6, p. h1736, 2014. II. J. Graham, "Foot drop: Explaining the causes, characteristics and treatment," Br. J. Neurosci. Nurs., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 168–172, 2010. III. Y. Feng and Y. Song, "The Categories of AFO and Its Effect on Patients With Foot Impair: A Systemic Review," Phys. Act. Heal., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 8–16, 2017. IV. J. H. P. Pallari, K. W. Dalgarno, J. Munguia, L. Muraru, L. Peeraer, S. Telfer, and J. Woodburn" Design and additive fabrication of foot and ankle-foot orthoses"21st Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2010 (2010) 834-845 V. Y. Jin, Y. He, and A. Shih, "Process Planning for the Fuse Deposition Modeling of Ankle-Foot-Othoses," Procedia CIRP, vol. 42, no. Isem Xviii, pp. 760–765, 2016. VI. R. K. Chen, Y. an Jin, J. Wensman, and A. Shih, "Additive manufacturing of custom orthoses and prostheses-A review," Addit. Manuf., vol. 12, pp. 77–89, 2016. VII. A. D. Maso and F. Cosmi, "ScienceDirect 3D-printed ankle-foot orthosis : a design method," Mater. Today Proc., vol. 12, pp. 252–261, 2019. VIII. B. Yuan et al., "Designing of a passive knee-assisting exoskeleton for weight-bearing," in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2017, vol. 10463 LNAI, pp. 273–285. IX. R. Spina, B. Cavalcante, and F. Lavecchia, "Diment LE, Thompson MS, Bergmann JHM. Clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 3D printing: a systematic review.," AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 1960, 2018. X. M. Srivastava, S. Maheshwari, T. K. Kundra, and S. Rathee, "ScienceDirect Multi-Response Optimization of Fused Deposition Modelling Process Parameters of ABS Using Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) -Based Desirability Analysis," Mater. Today Proc., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1972–1977, 2017. XI. E. Malekipour, S. Attoye, and H. El-Mounayri, "Investigation of Layer Based Thermal Behavior in Fused Deposition Modeling Process by Infrared Thermography," Procedia Manuf., vol. 26, pp. 1014–1022, 2018. XII. A. Patar, N. Jamlus, K. Makhtar, J. Mahmud, and T. Komeda, "Development of dynamic ankle foot orthosis for therapeutic application," Procedia Eng., vol. 41, no. Iris, pp. 1432–1440, 2012. XIII. Y. A. Jin, H. Li, Y. He, and J. Z. Fu, "Quantitative analysis of surface profile in fused deposition modelling," Addit. Manuf., vol. 8, pp. 142–148, 2015. XIV. M. Walbran, K. Turner, and A. J. McDaid, "Customized 3D printed ankle-foot orthosis with adaptable carbon fibre composite spring joint," Cogent Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2016. XV. N. Wierzbicka, F. Górski, R. Wichniarek, and W. Kuczko, "The effect of process parameters in fused deposition modelling on bonding degree and mechanical properties," Adv. Sci. Technol. Res. J., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 283–288, 2017. XVI. S. Farah, D. G. Anderson, and R. Langer, "Physical and mechanical properties of PLA, and their functions in widespread applications — A comprehensive review," Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., vol. 107, pp. 367–392, 2016. XVII. S. Wojtyła, P. Klama, and T. Baran, "Is 3D printing safe ? Analysis of the thermal treatment of thermoplastics : ABS , PLA , PET , and," vol. 9624, no. April, 2017. XVIII. G. Cicala et al., "Polylactide / lignin blends," J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2017. XIX. S. Y. Lee, I. A. Kang, G. H. Doh, H. G. Yoon, B. D. Park, and Q. Wu, "Thermal and mechanical properties of wood flour/talc-filled polylactic acid composites: Effect of filler content and coupling treatment," J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 209–223, 2008. XX. Y. Tao, H. Wang, Z. Li, P. Li, and S. Q. Shi, "Development and application ofwood flour-filled polylactic acid composite filament for 3d printing," Materials (Basel)., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1–6, 2017. XXI. D. Lewitus, S. McCarthy, A. Ophir, and S. Kenig, "The effect of nanoclays on the properties of PLLA-modified polymers Part 1: Mechanical and thermal properties," J. Polym. Environ., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171–177, 2006. XXII. H. J. Chung, E. J. Lee, and S. T. Lim, "Comparison in glass transition and enthalpy relaxation between native and gelatinized rice starches," Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 287–298, 2002. View Download Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 CFD STUDIES OF MIXING BEHAVIOR OF INERT SAND WITH BIOMASS IN FLUIDIZED BED Authors: B.J.M.Rao,K.V.N.S.Rao, DOI NO: https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.07.00053 admin July 26, 2020 Abstract: Agriculture deposits, which remains unused and often causes ecological problems, could play an important role as an energy source to meet energy needs in developing countries ' rural areas. Moreover, energy levels in these deposits are low and need to be elevated by introducing efficient operative conversion technologies to utilize these residues as fuels. In this context, the utilization of a fluidized bed innovation enables a wide range of non-uniform-sized low-grade fuels to be effectively converted into other forms of energy.This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of fluidized conversion method for transformation of agricultural by-products such as rice husk, sawdust, and groundnut shells into useful energy. The present investigation was conducted to know the mixing characteristics of sand and fuel have been found by conducting experiments with mixing ratio of rice husk (1:13), saw dust(1:5) and groundnut shells (1:12), the variation of particle movement in the bed and mixing characteristics are analyzed. The impact of sand molecule size on the fluidization speed of two biofuel and sand components is studied and recommended for groundnut shells using a sand molecule of 0.6 mm size and for rice husk, sawdust 0.4 mm sand particle size. Also, establish that the particle size of sand has a significant effect on mingling features in case of sawdust. In the next part of the investigation, the CFD simulations of the fluidized bed are done to investigate the mixing behavior of sand and biomass particles. A set of simulations are conducted by ANSYS FLUENT16; the state of the bed is the same as that of the test. The findings were presented with the volume fraction of sand and biomass particles in the form of contour plots. Keywords: Biomass,sand,mixing behavior,Volume Fraction,CFD model, Refference: I Anil Tekale, Swapna God, Balaji Bedre, Pankaj Vaghela, Ganesh Madake, Suvarna Labade (2017), Energy Production from Biomass: Review, International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, Volume 2, Issue 10, ISSN No: – 2456 – 2165. II Anil Kumar, Nitin Kumar , Prashant Baredar , Ashish Shukla (2015), A review on biomass energy resources, potential, conversion and policy in India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Reviews 45-530-539. III Zhenglan Li, ZhenhuaXue (2015), Review of Biomass Energy utilization technology, 3rd International Conference on Material, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering. IV Abdeen Mustafa Omer (2011), Biomass energy resources utilisation and waste management, Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development Vol. 3(8), pp. 149 -170 V Rijul Dhingra, Abhinav Jain, Abhishek Pandey, and Srishti Mahajan (2014), Assessment of Renewable Energy in India, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 5, No. 5. VI Paulina Drożyner, Wojciech Rejmer, Piotr Starowicz,AndrzejKlasa, Krystyna A. Skibniewska (2013), Biomass as a Renewable Source of Energy, Technical Sciences 16(3), 211–220. VII Souvik Das, Swati Sikdar (2016), A Review on the Non-conventional Energy Sources in Indian Perspective, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 03 Issue: 02. VIII Maninder, Rupinderjit Singh Kathuria, Sonia Grover, Using Agricultural Residues as a Biomass Briquetting: An Alternative Source of Energy, IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSRJEEE), ISSN: 2278-1676 Volume 1, Issue 5 (July-Aug. 2012), PP 11-15. IX H.B.Goyal, DiptenduldDeal, R.C.Saxena (2006) Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 12, Issue 2Pages 504-517. X Digambar H. Patil, J. K. Shinde(2017) A Review Paper on Study of Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 4 XI Neil T.M. Duffy, John A. Eaton (2013) Investigation of factors affecting channelling in fixed-bed solid fuel combustion using CFD, Combustion and Flame 160, 2204–2220. XII Xing Wu, Kai Li, Feiyue and Xifeng Zhu (2017), Fluidization Behavior of Biomass Particles and its Improvement in a Cold Visualized Fluidized, Bio Resources 12(2), 3546-3559. XIII N.G. Deen, M. Van Sint Annaland, M.A. Van der Hoef, J.A.M. Kuipers (2007), Reviewof discrete particle modeling of fluidized beds, Chemical Engineering Science 62, 28 – 44. XIV BaskaraSethupathySubbaiah, Deepak Kumar Murugan, Dinesh Babu Deenadayalan, Dhamodharan.M.I (2014), Gasification of Biomass Using Fluidized Bed, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 2. XV Priyanka Kaushal, Tobias Pröll and Hermann Hofbauer, Modelling and simulation of the biomass fired dual fluidized bed gasifier at Guessing/Austria. XVI Dawit DiribaGuta (2012), Assessment of Biomass Fuel Resource Potential and Utilization in Ethiopia: Sourcing Strategies for Renewable Energies, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, Vol.2, and No.1. View Download Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 AN APPROACH FOR OPTIMISING THE FLOW RATE CONDITIONS OF A DIVERGENT NOZZLE UNDER DIFFERENT ANGULAR CONDITIONS Authors: Lam Ratna Raju ,Ch. Pavan Satyanarayana,Neelamsetty Vijaya Kavya, DOI NO: https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.07.00054 admin July 26, 2020 Abstract: A spout is a device which is used to offer the guidance to the gases leaving the burning chamber. Spout is a chamber which has a capability to change over the thermo-compound essentials created within the ignition chamber into lively vitality. The spout adjustments over the low speed, excessive weight, excessive temperature fuel in the consuming chamber into rapid gasoline of decrease weight and low temperature. An exciting spout is used if the spout weight volume is superior vehicles in supersonic airplane machines commonly combine a few sort of a distinctive spout. Our exam is surpassed on the use of programming like Ansys Workbench for arranging of the spout and Fluent 15.0 for separating the streams inside the spout. The events of staggers for the pipe formed spouts have been seen close by trade parameters for numerous considered one of a kind edges. The parameters underneath recognition are differentiated and that of shape spout for singular terrific edges by using keeping up the gulf, outlet and throat width and lengths of joined together and diverse quantities as same. The simultaneous component and throat expansiveness are kept regular over the cases.The surprise of stun became envisioned and the effects exhibited near closeness in direction of motion of Mach circle and its appearance plans as exposed in numerous preliminary considers on advancement in pipe molded particular spouts with assorted edges four°,7°, 10°, Occurrence of stun is seen with higher special factors Keywords: Nozzle,Supersonic Rocket Engine,Divergent edges, Refference: I. Varun, R.; Sundararajan,T.; Usha,R.; Srinivasan,ok.; Interaction among particle-laden under increased twin supersonic jets, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering 2010 224: 1005. II. Pandey,K.M.; Singh, A.P.; CFD Analysis of Conical Nozzle for Mach 3 at Various Angles of Divergence with Fluent Software, International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 2, August 2010, ISSN: 2010-0221. III. Natta, Pardhasaradhi.; Kumar, V.Ranjith.; Rao, Dr. Y.V. Hanumantha.; Flow Analysis of Rocket Nozzle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (Cfd), International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622,Vol. 2, Issue five, September- October 2012, pp.1226-1235. IV. K.M. Pandey, Member IACSIT and A.P. Singh. K.M.Pandey, Member, IACSIT and S.K.YadavK.M.Pandey and S.K.Yadav, ―CFD Analysis of a Rocket Nozzle with Two Inlets at Mach2.1, Journal of Environmental Research and Development, Vol 5, No 2, 2010, pp- 308-321. V. Shigeru Aso, ArifNur Hakim, Shingo Miyamoto, Kei Inoue and Yasuhiro Tani " Fundamental examine of supersonic combustion in natural air waft with use of surprise tunnel" Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Kyushu University, Japan , Acta Astronautica 57 (2005) 384 – 389. VI. P. Padmanathan, Dr. S. Vaidyanathan, Computational Analysis of Shockwave in Convergent Divergent Nozzle, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622 , Vol. 2, Issue 2,Mar-Apr 2012, pp.1597-1605. VII. Adamson, T.C., Jr., and Nicholls., J.A., "On the shape of jets from Highly below improved Nozzles into Still Air," Journal of the Aerospace Sciences, Vol.26, No.1, Jan 1959, pp. Sixteen-24. VIII. Lewis, C. H., Jr., and Carlson, D. J., "Normal Shock Location in underneath increased Gas and Gas particle Jets," AIAA Journal, Vol 2, No.4, April 1964, pp. 776-777. Books IX. Anderson, John D.Jr.; Modern Compressible Flow with Historical Perspective, Third edition, 2012 X. Versteeg. H.; Malalasekra.W.; An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics The Finite Volume Method, Second Edition,2009. XI. H.K.Versteeg and W.Malala Sekhara, "An introduction to Computational fluid Dynamics", British Library cataloguing pub, 4th version, 1996. XII. Lars Davidson, "An introduction to turbulenceModels", Department of thermo and fluid dynamics, Chalmers college of era, Goteborg, Sweden, November, 2003. XIII. Karna s. Patel, "CFD analysis of an aerofoil", International Journal of engineering studies,2009. XIV. K.M. Pandey, Member IACSIT and A.P. Singh "CFD Analysis of Conical Nozzle for Mach 3 at Various Angles of Divergence with Fluent Software,2017. XV. P. Parthiban, M. Robert Sagayadoss, T. Ambikapathi, Design And Analysis Of Rocket Engine Nozzle by way of the usage of CFD and Optimization of Nozzle parameters, International Journal of Engineering Research, Vol.Three., Issue.5., 2015 (Sept.-Oct.). View Download Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF DRIVE SHAFT FOR AN AUTOMOBILE APPLICATIONS Authors: Govindarajulu Eedara,P. N. Manthru Naik, DOI NO: https://doi.org/10.26782/jmcms.2020.07.00055 admin July 26, 2020 Abstract: The driveshaft is a mechanical instrument that is used in automobiles. The other name of the drive shaft is driveshaft is prop shaft. It has one long cylindrical structure consist of two universal joints. By using the driveshaft it transfers the rotary motion to the differential by using the helical gearbox. By using this rotary motion the rare wheels will run. The 3dimensional Model of automobile drive Shaft is designed using CATIA parametric which enables product development processes and thereby brings about an optimum design. Now a day's steel is using the best material for the driveshaft.In this paper replacing the composite materials (Kevlar, e-glass epoxy) instead of steel material and itreduces a considerable amount of weight when compared to the conventional steel shaft. The composite driveshaft have high modulus is designed by using CATIA software and tested in ANSYS for optimization of design or material check and providing the best datebook Keywords: The driveshaft ,CATIA,automobile,steel,composite materials,ANSYS,Kevla,e-glass epoxy, Refference: I A.R. Abu Talib, Aidy Ali, Mohamed A. Badie, Nur Azienda Che Lah, A.F. Golestaneh Developing a hybrid, carbon/glass-fiber-reinforced, epoxy composite automotive driveshaft, Material and Design, volume31, 2010, pp 514 – 521 II ErcanSevkat, Hikmet Tumer, Residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact Loadings, Materials, and design, volume – 51, 2013, pp -956-967. III H. Bayrakceken, S. Tasgetiren, I. Yavuz two cases of failure in the power transmission system on vehicles: A Universal joint yoke and a drive shaft, volume-14,2007,pp71. IV H.B.H. Gubran, Dynamics of hybrid shafts, Mechanics Research communication, volume – 32, 2005, pp – 368-374. V Shaw D, Simitses DJ, SheinmanI. Imperfection sensitivity of laminated cylindrical shells in torsion and axial compression. ComposStruct 1985; 4(3) pp:35–60. View Download Journal Vol – 15 No -7, July 2020 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AN SI ENGINE USING E10 EQUIVALENT TERNARY GASOLINE- ALCOHOL BLENDS." JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF CONTINUA AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES (2020)