Spatial analysis of the association of alcohol outlets and alcohol-related pedestrian/bicyclist injuries in New York City
Pedestrian and bicyclist injury is an important public health issue. The retail environment, particularly the presence of alcohol outlets, may contribute the the risk of pedestrian or bicyclist injury, but this association is poorly understood. Methods This study quantifies the spatial risk of alcohol-related pedestrian injury in New York City at the census tract level over a recent 10-year period using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial regression model with Integrated Nested Laplace
... aplace approximations. The analysis measures local risk, and estimates the association between the presence of alcohol outlets in a census tract and alcohol-involved pedestrian/bicyclist injury after controlling for social, economic and traffic-related variables. Results Holding all other covariates to zero and adjusting for both random and spatial variation, the presence of at least one alcohol outlet in a census tract increased the risk of a pedestrian or bicyclist being struck by a car by 47 % (IDR = 1.47, 95 % Credible Interval (CrI) 1.13, 1.91). Conclusions The presence of one or more alcohol outlets in a census tract in an urban environment increases the risk of bicyclist/pedestrian injury in important and meaningful ways. Identifying areas of increased risk due to alcohol allows the targeting of interventions to prevent and control alcohol-related pedestrian and bicyclist injuries.